The purpose of this study was to employ systems theory to analyze the social network of a Big Ten football team’s Twitter community. An identifiable network was found among the observed actors (N = 139), with fan accounts composing the largest percentage of the network. The number of observed reciprocal interactions was low, only 11.8% of the interactions and only 21.5% of the nodes. Traditionalmedia accounts frequently interacted with other media accounts, while fans interacted primarily with other fans. Overall, nontraditional-media accounts’ users were most focused on interactivity. Team-related accounts were almost nonexistent in the interactive network. A systems-theory-based network was found in terms of input, transformation, and output components. The feedback loop was the weak link in the network, indicating a possible lack of importance of direct feedback in Twitter social networks.
Galen Clavio, Lauren M. Burch and Evan L. Frederick
Frederick S. Daniels and Daniel M. Landers
This study investigated heart rate (HE) and respiration functioning during rifle shooting to test hypotheses derived from Schwartz's (1979) systems and disregulation theory, and to compare biofeedback with verbal instruction in developing awareness and control of autonomic patterns. Male subjects (N = 8) were pretested to determine HE and respiration patterns affecting performance. They were then divided into two equal groups and given either auditory biofeedback or verbal instruction. The auditory-biofeedback group received continuous pattern feedback through earphones while the verbal instruction group received only presession instruction without feedback. Each group trained for five sessions of 40 shots each. Following training, two 40-shot sessions were conducted. A scaled interview was administered pre- and posttraining to determine awareness/control of autonomic functioning. Compared to the verbal instruction group, the results showed that the biofeedback group significantly improved performance and consistency of the desired pattern and had significantly greater awareness/control of the autonomic pattern. The results supported the systems and disregulation theory as well as the viability of biofeedback for altering imbalances within the systems.
Rasmus K. Storm and Ulrik Wagner
Sports scandals are often discussed in the media and research literature without any deeper reflection on their specificities or development. As the economic and political significance of sport seem to grow in correlation with the development of globalization and new social media, the call for a sociological understanding of the downsides of sport becomes imperative. By deploying a communication-theory framework supplemented with insights from discourse theory, this article aims to develop a theoretical model of the sports scandal. It presents a 5-step model encompassing initial steps of transgression, followed by a publicly observed dislocation destabilizing the social order, which subsequently results in moral communication, environmental pressure for appropriate action, and, finally, an institutional solution.
Jim Mckay and Donna O’Connor
section provides an overview of relevant literature on coach-led practice sessions and dynamic systems theory. This is followed by the Queensland Reds case study that outlines the data they analysed, the process and implementation of new practices and Jim’s reflections. The final section provides
Jon C. Hellstedt
Coaches often have difficulty working with the parents of their athletes. Communication problems, conflict, and sometimes power struggles over who has control over the child’s training occasionally develop. Based on an integration of sport psychology and family systems theory, a model for understanding the coach / parent / athlete triangle is developed. Three types of parents are described: overinvolved, underinvolved, and moderately involved, as well as goals and strategies for working with each type of parent.
Kathleen J. Buchko
This article presents a three-phase model that can guide sport psychologists assisting in crisis intervention with athletes in the weeks following a major trauma. The model employs a systems theory framework within which therapeutic tasks that facilitate recovery from trauma are offered. The unique role of the sport psychologist in post-traumatic care of athletes is discussed. The model’s utility is illustrated via retrospective application to the author’s work with a team that experienced the suicide of one of its veteran members.
Charles H. Brown, Dan Gould and Sandra Foster
This article reviews the emerging concept of Contextual Intelligence (CI) and its relevance to sport psychology. Interviews with expert performance consultants suggest that CI is a key factor in successful consultations. Although CI has often been considered a tacit process learned indirectly through experience, systems theory and institutional research offer models for assessing organizations and developing contextual “maps.” By having a framework and language for assessing context, sport psychologists can more effectively develop contextually intelligent and culturally appropriate interventions. The authors offer a framework for assessing context and developing contextual “maps.” Specific guidelines and principles for designing contextually intelligent interventions are provided.
This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task criteria, (c) limitation and enablement criteria, (d) performance errors, and (e) adaptation suggestions. Four individual case examples are described, referring to the conceptual model and depicting its use in various settings of physical activity, including physical education, rehabilitation, competition, and recreation.
Chae-Hee Park, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Marcia G. Ory, Jane Gleason-Senior, Terry L. Bazzarre and Robin Mockenhaupt
This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the National Blueprint (NB) on the policies, programs, and organizational culture of selected national organizations. The theoretical model selected to assess the impact of the NB on organizational behavior was Burke’s system theory of organizational change. Three organizations, AARP, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and the Administration on Aging (AoA), were selected for the study. Two individuals in each of these organizations were selected for interview. Semistructured interviews and document reviews were used in the data-collection process. Findings showed that the publication and establishment of the NB resulted in changes in the operating procedures of AARP, ACSM, and AoA. The results were broadly consistent with Burke’s system theory of organizational change. The publication of the NB was shown to affect the behavior of organizational leaders, organizational culture, policies, programs, and individual and organizational performance. The new information generated has increased our understanding of the impact of health campaigns on organizational behavior.
David J. Langley
A large volume of research has focused on the benefits of appropriate health-related fitness activities for older adults (Spirduso, 1994). Although lifetime participation in sports is a common alternative to fitness activities, few studies have examined the subjective, personal experience underlying initial sport-skill development. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how dynamical-systems theory is a useful lens through which to examine the evolution of golf skill in 1 senior adult participant. Qualitative data collected over 7 months focused on a personal diary, formal and informal interviews, videotape analyses, and observational field notes. The development of golf skill was bounded by a series of functional constraints, as well as limiting factors connected to the task and the environment. The results illustrate the theoretical proposition (NewelI. 1986) that skill learning arises from and is structured by a system of interacting constraints.