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Peng Zhang, Phillip Ward, Weidong Li, Sue Sutherland, and Jackie Goodway

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Play Practice (PP) instruction on the performance of table tennis skills. Fifty-six college students in four intact classes were taught by two instructors using PP and Skill-focused Instruction (SI). A nonequivalent control/comparison group experimental design with pre and post measures was used. Three separate ANOVAs with a repeated measure (time effect) were conducted to examine the effects of PP and SI for each of the three dependent variables: (a) forehand drive accuracy, (b) forehand attack, and (c) serve. Results demonstrated that both PP and SI conditions were effective in improving participants’ skills in forehand drive, forehand attack, and serving from pre- to posttest. However, PP was more effective in improving participants’ skills in forehand attack and serving from pre to post as compared with SI.

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Alexander W.J. Freemantle, Lorenzo D. Stafford, Christopher R.D. Wagstaff, and Lucy Akehurst

of anger can be both facilitative and debilitative for athletes depending on the sporting context ( Robazza et al., 2006 ). Qualitative assessments in table tennis have indicated that simpler relationships may exist between the athletes’ experienced emotions and their performance. Using self

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Guillaume Martinent and Claude Ferrand

The purpose of this study was to explore the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions experienced by table tennis players during competitive matches by adopting a naturalistic qualitative video-assisted approach. Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table tennis players (2 or 3 matches per participants). Nine discrete emotions were identified through the inductive analyses of the participants' transcriptions: anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, and hope. Inductive analyses revealed the emergence of 4 categories and 13 themes among the 9 discrete emotions: positive direction (increased concentration, increased motivation, increased confidence, positive sensations, and adaptive behaviors), negative direction (decreased concentration, decreased motivation, too confident, decreased confidence, negative sensations, and maladaptive behaviors), neutral direction (take more risk and take less risk), and no perceived influence on own performance. Results are discussed in terms of current research on directional interpretation and emotions in sport.

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Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Jorge Vieira de Mello Leite, Marcelo Papoti, and Ralph Beneke

Purpose:

To test the hypotheses that the metabolic profile of table tennis is dominantly aerobic, anaerobic energy is related to the accumulated duration and intensity of rallies, and activity and metabolic profile are interrelated with the individual fitness profile determined via table tennis–specific tests.

Methods:

Eleven male experienced table tennis players (22 ± 3 y, 77.6 ± 18.9 kg, 177.1 ± 8.1 cm) underwent 2 simulated table tennis matches to analyze aerobic (WOXID) energy, anaerobic glycolytic (WBLC) energy, and phosphocreatine breakdown (WPCr); a table tennis–specific graded exercise test to measure ventilatory threshold and peak oxygen uptake; and an exhaustive supramaximal table tennis effort to determine maximal accumulated deficit of oxygen.

Results:

WOXID, WBLC, and WPCr corresponded to 96.5% ± 1.7%, 1.0% ± 0.7%, and 2.5% ± 1.4%, respectively. WOXID was interrelated with rally duration (r = .81) and number of shots per rally (r = .77), whereas match intensity was correlated with WPCr (r = .62) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (r = .58).

Conclusions:

The metabolic profile of table tennis is predominantly aerobic and interrelated with the individual fitness profile determined via table tennis–specific tests. Table tennis–specific ventilatory threshold determines the average oxygen uptake and overall WOXID, whereas table tennis–specific maximal accumulated oxygen deficit indicates the ability to use and sustain slightly higher blood lactate concentration and WBLC during the match.

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Omid Kazemi, Amir Letafatkar, and Paulo H. Marchetti

the muscle activation of the glenohumeral joint during forehand and backhand movements in elite table tennis players. The main hypothesis considers that muscle activation decreases after static stretching when compared with the dynamic-stretching protocol in both tennis movements. Methods Participants

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Michaela Elisabeth Karlsson, Natalia B. Stambulova, and Kristoffer Henriksen

environments to inform less successful environments on how they can optimize talent development. In this case study, we apply the holistic ecological approach (HEA; Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017 ) to examine a successful athletic talent development environment (ATDE) in Swedish table tennis. Talent development

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Fang-Yu Hsu, Kuei-Lan Tsai, Chia-Lun Lee, Wen-Dien Chang, and Nai-Jen Chang

Table tennis requires excellent explosive power for athletes to make each offensive stroke. 1 Table tennis players must also execute substantial amounts of fast-paced footwork while performing repetitive forehand and backhand strokes. 2 Compared with players of other racket sports, such as tennis

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Hiroyuki Sagayama, Genki Hamaguchi, Makiko Toguchi, Mamiko Ichikawa, Yosuke Yamada, Naoyuki Ebine, Yasuki Higaki, and Hiroaki Tanaka

Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) are important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The PAL of table tennis has been estimated to about 2.0: it is categorized as a moderateactivity sport (4.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in the Compendium of Physical Activities. However, modern table tennis makes high physiological demands. The aims of the current study were to examine (1) TEE and PAL of competitive table tennis players and (2) the physiological demands of various types of table tennis practice. In Experiment 1, we measured TEE and PAL in 10 Japanese college competitive table tennis players (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method during training and with an exercise training log and self-reported energy intake. TEE was 15.5 ± 1.9 MJ·day-1 (3695 ± 449 kcal·day-1); PAL was 2.53 ± 0.25; and the average training duration was 181 ± 38 min·day-1. In Experiment 2, we measured METs of five different practices in seven college competition players (20.6 ± 1.2 years). Three practices without footwork were 4.5–5.2 METs, and two practices with footwork were 9.5–11.5 METs. Table tennis practices averaged 7.1 ± 3.2 METS demonstrating similarities with other vigorous racket sports. In conclusion the current Compendium of Physical Activities underestimates the physiological demands of table tennis practice for competition; the estimated energy requirement should be based on DLW method data.

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Carole Sève, Germain Poizat, Jacques Saury, and Marc Durand

This article describes the main features of a collaborative project involving researchers, coaches, and elite table tennis players. The project was carried out between 1997 and 2002 with funding from the French Ministry of Youth and Sports, in response to a request by French Table Tennis Team coaches to improve the training of table tennis players. Matches were videotaped during international meets and followed by interviews during which the players described and commented on their activity as they viewed the tapes. A grounded theory of players’ activity emerged from the data collected and the ensuing theoretical issues that were raised. The findings on table tennis players’ activity pointed to a new direction for training proposals, for example the organization of reflexive practices during training.

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Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer Mactavish, Janne Kerremans, and Yves C. Vanlandewijck

Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing). The backward stepwise-regression analysis model revealed that 18% of the variance in tactical proficiency was attributed to spatial visualization and simple reaction time. Applications of these findings resulted in an evidence-based classification system that led to the reinclusion of athletes with ID in Paralympic table tennis and provide the basis for future research in this important area.