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Thiago S. Duarte, Danilo L. Alves, Danilo R. Coimbra, Bernardo Miloski, João C. Bouzas Marins and Maurício G. Bara Filho

agility in displacement to cover short distances. 1 , 7 , 8 In team sports such as volleyball, monitoring of responses is complex, as athletes are submitted to the same external load at the same time. In addition, different types of technical and tactical training required within a schedule in these

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Montassar Tabben, Daniele Conte, Monoem Haddad and Karim Chamari

investigated technical and tactical parameters only in relation to the final match outcome, that is, win/defeat. 5 , 8 Recently, Tabben et al 9 validated a novel approach to time–motion analysis (ie, decisive moment approach) which for the first time allowed identifying clear discriminating factors of

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon Pearson, Sian V. Allen, Rita M. Malcata, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

In middle-distance running, an athlete’s tactical execution is a key element of race performance. 1 , 2 Historical examples of men’s 800-m championship running from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (OG) suggests the presence of an end spurt with 200 m left to run. 3 By contrast, both Sebastian Coe

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Rafael L. Kons, Kai Krabben, David L. Mann, Gabriela Fischer and Daniele Detanico

predominantly impacted by vision impairment. These studies have focused on the outcome of VI judo competitions (frequency of medals and scores) rather than the course of events during those competitions. A more detailed analysis of the relationship between vision impairment and the technical–tactical parameters

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Arturo Casado and Andrew Renfree

several studies have investigated pacing strategies in middle-distance (800 and 1500 m) running events, assessed through distribution of speeds over race segments, 2 – 4 other work has examined the influence of tactical positioning at intermediate points on finishing position. 5 Tactical issues are

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Philip A. Furley and Daniel Memmert

The controlled attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC, Engle 2002) suggests that WMC represents a domain free limitation in the ability to control attention and is predictive of an individual’s capability of staying focused, avoiding distraction and impulsive errors. In the present paper we test the predictive power of WMC in computer-based sport decision-making tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrated that high-WMC athletes were better able at focusing their attention on tactical decision making while blocking out irrelevant auditory distraction. Experiment 2 showed that high-WMC athletes were more successful at adapting their tactical decision making according to the situation instead of relying on prepotent inappropriate decisions. The present results provide additional but also unique support for the controlled attention theory of WMC by demonstrating that WMC is predictive of controlling attention in complex settings among different modalities and highlight the importance of working memory in tactical decision making.

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Gert Vande Broek, Filip Boen, Manu Claessens, Jos Feys and Tanja Ceux

This study investigated the decision-making process of three instructional groups (i.e., teacher-centered, student-centered with tactical questioning and student-centered without tactical questioning) in practical courses in volleyball among university students. All students (N = 122) performed a Tactical Awareness task on the correctness of the decision-making process at three testing phases (i.e., pretest, posttest and retention test). The results revealed that the tactical awareness of all students ameliorated after five lessons (posttest) and this effect persisted over time after six weeks (retention test). However, the tactical knowledge of the student-centered instructional group with tactical questioning improved significantly more than the two other instructional groups. These findings highlight the importance of a student-centered approach with an active involvement of students in evaluative skills to enhance the tactical decision-making process.

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Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker

different editions. However, dissimilar courses and weather, together with the yearly time span between races, imply individual’s performance and pacing strategy were always unique. 6 , 7 , 23 In addition, to provide a better understanding of tactical arrangements and its influence on pacing strategy, 22

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Jaime Serra-Olivares, Luis M. García-López and Antonio Calderón

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball; another on penetrating-the-defense; and one on attacking-the-goal. Results showed that the modification of tactical problems had a significantly different effect on tactical-context adaptation (p < .005) and for developing passing, dribbling, shooting and getting free skills (p < .005). Small-sided games focused on keeping-the-ball and attacking-the-goal revealed a tactical complexity that was significantly different to the rest of the games (p < .005). With regard to the further investigation of the quality representative task design, these findings highlight the importance of knowing the effects that modification has on tactical constraints and the tactical complexity/technical difficulty involved in developing behaviors.

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Sue L. McPherson and Clare MacMahon

Our understanding of the role of tactical knowledge in baseball batting preparation is scarce, thereby limiting training guidelines. We examined the verbal reports of baseball players and nonplayers when told to view different edited video sequences of a half-inning of baseball competition under different task conditions: to prepare to bat (problem solve); recall as much information as possible (intentional recall); or prepare to bat, with an unexpected recall (incidental recall). Separate mixed-model ANOVAs (Expertise X Instruction conditions) on verbal report measures indicated that nonplayers used general strategies for recalling baseball events and lacked the tactical skills to use such information for their upcoming times at bat. In contrast, players used baseball-specific strategies to encode and retrieve pertinent game events from long-term memory (LTM) to develop tactics for their upcoming times at bat and to recall as much information as possible. Recommendations for training tactical skills are presented as some players exhibited defciencies in the LTM structures that mediate batting decisions.