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Review of the Instruments Most Frequently Employed to Assess Tactics in Physical Education and Youth Sports

José L. Arias and Francisco Javier Castejón

Investigators’ increased interest in teaching game tactics requires generalizable assessment instruments that are appropriate to whatever is needed by the tactic. This literature review aims to provide information about the instruments most frequently used to assess tactics in youth sports. We found that very few studies used instruments that fulfilled the criteria required by this review. The most frequently used tool was The Game Performance Assessment Instrument, followed by the Team Sport Assessment Procedure. Some other instruments, labeled Nonhabitual instruments, were only used sporadically. The instruments were mainly used in invasion and net/wall games. Each instrument defined a set of components and indexes to quantify the assessment, but only the Game Performance Assessment Instrument allows the assessment of the attack and the defense both of the player who possesses the ball and the player who does not. Suggestions were proposed for instruments to be used for assessing tactics.

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Understanding the Consequences of Newcomer Integration Processes: The Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire

Alex J. Benson and Mark Eys

teams and the consequences associated with various approaches. Socialization is a process in which newcomers learn the culture, norms, and expectations associated with membership in a particular group ( Van Maanen, 1978 ). The term socialization tactics refers to “the ways in which the experiences of

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Sprint Tactics in the Tour de France: A Case Study of a World-Class Sprinter (Part II)

Teun van Erp, Marcel Kittel, and Robert P. Lamberts

example, 1 general classification rider, 2 or 3 climbing domestiques, as well as 1 sprinter, and 2 or 3 sprint domestiques. This mixture of riders as well as their variable roles is believed to impact negatively upon the size and efficiency of the team’s sprint train. Therefore, it could be that tactics

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Team Action Imagery and Team Cognition: Imagery of Game Situations and Required Team Actions Promotes a Functional Structure in Players’ Representations of Team-Level Tactics

Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen, and Thomas Schack

success. Drawing on the idea of team cognition in the present study, we present an approach to practice team action by way of imagery and examine its impact on mental representations of team-level tactics in team sports. Imagery denotes “the creation and re-creation of an experience generated from

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The Foundations of Tactics and Strategy in Team Sports

Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout, and Daniel Bouthier

The debate regarding the teaching of sport and games appears to be more complex than a matter of technical versus tactical approaches. The authors identify facets of the debate. One of these facets concerns the undifferentiated use of the terms tactics and strategy. The authors argue that these two concepts need to be clarified if decision-making and critical-thinking are to be encouraged on the part of the students. A framework is put forward for the analysis of the functioning of team sports. The framework includes: (a) an overview of the internal logic of team sports based on two essential features, the rapport of strength and the competency network; (b) an operational definition of strategy and tactics as they relate to the internal logic of team sports; and (c) nine principles underlying tactics and strategy and presented as potential guides for teachers and students in the teaching-learning of team sports and games.

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Are Current Physical Match Performance Metrics in Elite Soccer Fit for Purpose or Is the Adoption of an Integrated Approach Needed?

Paul S. Bradley and Jack D. Ade

thresholds could provide tactically constrained physical data for selected positions that is challenging to interpret given the lack contextualization. A more customized approach that is derived from physical actions with a tactical purpose could be advantageous. Even if tactics or context are the main

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Effect of the Pacing Strategies on the Open-Water 10-km World Swimming Championships Performances

Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

position rather than finishing time, and time differences between the winner and other competitors may be only marginal. 6 , 11 Therefore, competitors must also be aware of extrinsic factors, such as opponent tactics, the course geography, or the external changing conditions (in outdoor environments), to

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More Pace Variation and Pack Formation in Successful World-Class 10,000-m Runners Than in Less Successful Competitors

Andrew Renfree, Arturo Casado, Gonzalo Pellejero, and Brian Hanley

e31818cb278 19092709 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278 23. Cohen J . Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences . 2nd ed. New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum ; 1988 . 24. Thiel C , Foster C , Banzer W , De Koning J . Pacing in Olympic track races: competitive tactics versus

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Strategic Understandings: An Investigation of Professional Academy Youth Soccer Coaches’ Interpretation, Knowledge, and Application of Game Strategies

Amy Price, Dave Collins, John Stoszkowski, and Shane Pill

( Grehaigne & Godbout, 1995 ; Grehaigne, Godbout, & Bouthier, 1997 ), in a quest to outwit the opponent. Principles of play are a heuristic that enable coaches to generalize tactics both in and out of possession, while the “logic of the game” refers to tactical and strategic notions that cause interaction

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Pacing Strategy and Tactical Positioning During Cyclo-Cross Races

Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield, and James G. Hopker

, generating opportunities for experimental research, 5 and training interventions aiming to improved racing preparation and tactics. We hypothesized that cyclists generally adopt a positive pacing strategy to gain a good position in the first laps, with top performers adopting a more even distribution than