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José L. Arias and Francisco Javier Castejón

Investigators’ increased interest in teaching game tactics requires generalizable assessment instruments that are appropriate to whatever is needed by the tactic. This literature review aims to provide information about the instruments most frequently used to assess tactics in youth sports. We found that very few studies used instruments that fulfilled the criteria required by this review. The most frequently used tool was The Game Performance Assessment Instrument, followed by the Team Sport Assessment Procedure. Some other instruments, labeled Nonhabitual instruments, were only used sporadically. The instruments were mainly used in invasion and net/wall games. Each instrument defined a set of components and indexes to quantify the assessment, but only the Game Performance Assessment Instrument allows the assessment of the attack and the defense both of the player who possesses the ball and the player who does not. Suggestions were proposed for instruments to be used for assessing tactics.

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Alex J. Benson and Mark Eys

teams and the consequences associated with various approaches. Socialization is a process in which newcomers learn the culture, norms, and expectations associated with membership in a particular group ( Van Maanen, 1978 ). The term socialization tactics refers to “the ways in which the experiences of

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Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen and Thomas Schack

success. Drawing on the idea of team cognition in the present study, we present an approach to practice team action by way of imagery and examine its impact on mental representations of team-level tactics in team sports. Imagery denotes “the creation and re-creation of an experience generated from

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Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout and Daniel Bouthier

The debate regarding the teaching of sport and games appears to be more complex than a matter of technical versus tactical approaches. The authors identify facets of the debate. One of these facets concerns the undifferentiated use of the terms tactics and strategy. The authors argue that these two concepts need to be clarified if decision-making and critical-thinking are to be encouraged on the part of the students. A framework is put forward for the analysis of the functioning of team sports. The framework includes: (a) an overview of the internal logic of team sports based on two essential features, the rapport of strength and the competency network; (b) an operational definition of strategy and tactics as they relate to the internal logic of team sports; and (c) nine principles underlying tactics and strategy and presented as potential guides for teachers and students in the teaching-learning of team sports and games.

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Paul S. Bradley and Jack D. Ade

thresholds could provide tactically constrained physical data for selected positions that is challenging to interpret given the lack contextualization. A more customized approach that is derived from physical actions with a tactical purpose could be advantageous. Even if tactics or context are the main

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Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

position rather than finishing time, and time differences between the winner and other competitors may be only marginal. 6 , 11 Therefore, competitors must also be aware of extrinsic factors, such as opponent tactics, the course geography, or the external changing conditions (in outdoor environments), to

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Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker

, generating opportunities for experimental research, 5 and training interventions aiming to improved racing preparation and tactics. We hypothesized that cyclists generally adopt a positive pacing strategy to gain a good position in the first laps, with top performers adopting a more even distribution than

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

Cambridge boat race: performance, pacing and tactics between 1890 and 2014 . Sport Med . 2016 ; 46 ( 10 ): 1553 – 1562 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0524-y 10.1007/s40279-016-0524-y 15. Moffatt J , Scarf P , Passfield L , McHale IG , Zhang K . To lead or not to lead: analysis of the

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Øyvind Sandbakk and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Cross-country (XC) skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic XC-ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start, and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, 10 of the 12 current Olympic competitions in XC skiing involve mass starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today’s world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and “tactical flexibility.” The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in XC skiing requires skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different subtechniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past 4 decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014, XC skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically performing strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

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Tom Sharpe and Andrew Hawkins