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Anderson Nascimento Guimarães, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Juliana Bayeux Dascal and Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki

DF in a motor skill that demands power (kick). For learning purposes, which requires the analysis of a new motor skill by the apprentice, the Dwit Chagi (namely Taekwondo back kick) was chosen. This kick was analyzed in a pretest, followed by a practice period, posttest, and retention. The retention

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Matheus Hausen, Pedro Paulo Soares, Marcus Paulo Araujo, Débora Esteves, Hilbert Julio, Roberto Tauil, Marcus Junca, Flávia Porto, Emerson Franchini, Craig Alan Bridge and Jonas Gurgel

Valid and reliable methods of quantifying taekwondo athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness are necessary to support effective performance diagnosis, training prescription, and the selection of players within the sport. 1 Several studies have assessed taekwondo athletes’ maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

All Olympic combat sports (currently, judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling) separate athletes by body mass (BM) into “weight” divisions to minimize size/strength disparities. To ensure athletes meet weight requirements, official weigh-ins are held before competition. In addition to reducing body

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

Athletes who participate in weight-division sports such as taekwondo, boxing, judo, and wrestling regularly reduce their body weight severely prior to competition in order to gain a size advantage over the opponent while simultaneously meeting their weight-division requirements. In general

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Tomás Chacón Torrealba, Jaime Aranda Araya, Nicolas Benoit and Louise Deldicque

Taekwondo is a martial art that requires a good combination of specific technical skills, tactical experience, and physical fitness to score against one’s opponent by kicking or punching the opponent on permitted scoring areas or by achieving a technical knockout. In its official form, taekwondo

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

where body weight may be critical for success ( Khodaee et al., 2015 ; Sundgot-Borgen & Garthe, 2011 ; van de Mortel, 2008 ). Available studies report prevalence of RWL in the range of 40–60% in wrestlers, boxers, taekwondo, and judo athletes ( Franchini et al., 2012 ; Kazemi et al., 2005

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

communities ( Close et al., 2013a , 2013b ; Dubnov-Raz et al., 2015 ; Jastrzebska et al., 2016 ; Wyon et al., 2014 , 2016 ), as many factors such as training, fitness level, vitamin D status, and different supplement dosages may also be associated with performance improvements. Taekwondo (TKD) is an

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Paulo H.C. Mesquita, Emerson Franchini, Marco A. Romano-Silva, Guilherme M. Lage and Maicon R. Albuquerque

Taekwondo is an intermittent striking combat sport characterized by short periods of high-intensity actions interspersed by periods of pauses or low-intensity actions. 1 According to Bridge et al, 1 taekwondo combat presents an effort-to-pause ratio of 1∶2 to 1∶7, and because of this intermittent

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Craig A. Bridge, Michelle A. Jones and Barry Drust

Purpose:

To investigate the physiological responses and perceived exertion during international Taekwondo competition.

Methods:

Eight male Taekwondo black belts (mean ± SD, age 22 ± 4 y, body mass 69.4 ± 13.4 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.10 m, competition experience 9 ± 5 y) took part in an international-level Taekwondo competition. Each combat included three 2-min rounds with 30 s of recovery between each round. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at 5-s intervals during each combat. Capillary blood lactate samples were taken from the fingertip 1 min before competition, directly after each round and 1 min after competition. Competitors’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded for each round using Borg’s 6-to-20 scale.

Results:

HR (round 1: 175 ± 15 to round 3: 187 ± 8 beats·min−1; P < .05), percentage of HR maximum (round 1: 89 ± 8 to round 3: 96 ± 5% HRmax; P < .05), blood lactate (round 1: 7.5 ± 1.6 to round 3: 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L-1; P < .05) and RPE (round 1: 11 ± 2 to round 3: 14 ± 2; P < .05; mean ± SD) increased significantly across rounds.

Conclusions:

International-level Taekwondo competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses, high blood lactate concentrations, and increases in competitors' RPE across combat. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

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Erika Casolino, Cristina Cortis, Corrado Lupo, Salvatore Chiodo, Carlo Minganti and Laura Capranica

Purpose:

To anticipate outstanding athletic outcomes, the selection process of elite athletes simultaneously considers psychophysiological and technical parameters. This study aimed to investigate whether selected and nonselected athletes for the Italian national taekwondo team could be discriminated by means of sportspecific performances and psychophysiological responses to training.

Participants:

5 established Italian national athletes and 20 elite Italian taekwondo black belt athletes (9 women, 16 men; age 23.0 ± 3.1 y; body mass 67.0 ± 12.1 kg).

Methods:

To update the Italian national-team roster, the 20 elite athletes participated in a 1-wk selection camp (7 training sessions). Selected athletes (n = 10) joined established national athletes during the following 3-wk national training period (7 training sessions/wk). During the 1-wk selection camp, differences (P < .05) between selected and nonselected athletes in performances, heart-rate responses, blood lactate accumulation [La], subjective ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE), and mood were examined. During the 3-wk national training period, differences (P < .05) in mood between selected and established national athletes were investigated.

Results:

With respect to nonselected athletes, selected athletes responded better to training in terms of session RPE (P = .047) and [La] (P = .046). No difference in performance and mood between subgroups emerged. After the 3-wk national training period, differences (P = .035) emerged for confusion, with decreases in the established national athletes and increases for recently selected athletes.

Conclusions:

Session RPE and [La] seem to be more effective than psychological measures in discriminating between elite taekwondo athletes. Evaluation of mood could be effective in monitoring athletes’ response to national training.