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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

All Olympic combat sports (currently, judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling) separate athletes by body mass (BM) into “weight” divisions to minimize size/strength disparities. To ensure athletes meet weight requirements, official weigh-ins are held before competition. In addition to reducing body

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Anderson Nascimento Guimarães, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Juliana Bayeux Dascal, and Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki

DF in a motor skill that demands power (kick). For learning purposes, which requires the analysis of a new motor skill by the apprentice, the Dwit Chagi (namely Taekwondo back kick) was chosen. This kick was analyzed in a pretest, followed by a practice period, posttest, and retention. The retention

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Matheus Hausen, Pedro Paulo Soares, Marcus Paulo Araujo, Débora Esteves, Hilbert Julio, Roberto Tauil, Marcus Junca, Flávia Porto, Emerson Franchini, Craig Alan Bridge, and Jonas Gurgel

Valid and reliable methods of quantifying taekwondo athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness are necessary to support effective performance diagnosis, training prescription, and the selection of players within the sport. 1 Several studies have assessed taekwondo athletes’ maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee, and Song-Young Park

Athletes who participate in weight-division sports such as taekwondo, boxing, judo, and wrestling regularly reduce their body weight severely prior to competition in order to gain a size advantage over the opponent while simultaneously meeting their weight-division requirements. In general

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Bruno G. Straiotto, David P. Cook, Darren C. James, and P. John Seeley

in martial arts disciplines since kicking transfers a much larger impact to an opponent than punching. 8 , 9 The roundhouse kick has previously been identified as the most commonly used kick in martial arts competitions, such as karate, muay thai, and taekwondo, and several fundamental movement

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Tomás Chacón Torrealba, Jaime Aranda Araya, Nicolas Benoit, and Louise Deldicque

Taekwondo is a martial art that requires a good combination of specific technical skills, tactical experience, and physical fitness to score against one’s opponent by kicking or punching the opponent on permitted scoring areas or by achieving a technical knockout. In its official form, taekwondo

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet, and Tali Sinai

where body weight may be critical for success ( Khodaee et al., 2015 ; Sundgot-Borgen & Garthe, 2011 ; van de Mortel, 2008 ). Available studies report prevalence of RWL in the range of 40–60% in wrestlers, boxers, taekwondo, and judo athletes ( Franchini et al., 2012 ; Kazemi et al., 2005

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung, and Jong Kook Song

communities ( Close et al., 2013a , 2013b ; Dubnov-Raz et al., 2015 ; Jastrzebska et al., 2016 ; Wyon et al., 2014 , 2016 ), as many factors such as training, fitness level, vitamin D status, and different supplement dosages may also be associated with performance improvements. Taekwondo (TKD) is an

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Paulo H.C. Mesquita, Emerson Franchini, Marco A. Romano-Silva, Guilherme M. Lage, and Maicon R. Albuquerque

Taekwondo is an intermittent striking combat sport characterized by short periods of high-intensity actions interspersed by periods of pauses or low-intensity actions. 1 According to Bridge et al, 1 taekwondo combat presents an effort-to-pause ratio of 1∶2 to 1∶7, and because of this intermittent

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Karen A. Smith, Robert J. Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, and Kiara Lewis

 al., 2022 ). A number of limited qualitative investigations combine both male and female athletes within their studies of wrestling, judo, and taekwon-do ( Pettersson et al., 2012 , 2013 ; Sitch & Day, 2015 ); however, there is a lack of research on elite-level female athletes. The aim of this mixed