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Leigh F. Callahan, Rebecca J. Cleveland, Mary Altpeter and Betsy Hackney

Objective:

Evaluate effectiveness of the Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi Program for community participants with arthritis.

Methods:

343 individuals were randomized to either the intervention or wait-list control group. Performance and self-reported outcome (SRO) measures were assessed at baseline and eight weeks. At one year, SROs only were assessed. Adjusted means were determined using regression models adjusting for covariates, and effect sizes (ES) were calculated.

Results:

Average participant age was 66 years, 87% were female, and 87% were Caucasian. Among 284 (83%) participants who returned at eight weeks, balance by reach (ES = 0.30) and helplessness, sleep, and role participation satisfaction (ES = 0.24–0.54) improved significantly; pain, fatigue, and stiffness improvement (ES = 0.15–0.23) approached significance. No change was noted in mobility, lower extremity strength, or single-leg stance balance. At one year, improvements in pain, fatigue, stiffness, helplessness, and role participation satisfaction at eight weeks were maintained; 30% continued tai chi practice.

Conclusion:

Moderate effectiveness of the Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi Program was confirmed.

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Bradford C. Bennett

contributions to the field. Thus, I take this opportunity to highlight his perspectives and insights into somatic education. I also take this opportunity to show the relationship of Hanna’s approach to Eastern “schools” of movement, especially Tai Chi, and present a short summary of research findings on the art

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Samuel R. Nyman

interventions for populations at risk of falls and may well be more acceptable and cost effective ( Campbell & Robertson, 2007 ). In this context, Tai Chi has been researched as a strategy with great potential for preventing falls among older adults ( Nyman & Skelton, 2017 ). Tai Chi has been practiced widely

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Jianwei Duan, Kuan Wang, Tongbo Chang, Lejun Wang, Shengnian Zhang and Wenxin Niu

Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese exercise ( Xu, Hong, Li, & Chan, 2004 ), which can not only improve balance and fear of falling in older adults ( Logghe et al., 2010 ) but also enhance the lower limb muscle strength in older adults ( Liu, Liu, Zhu, Mo, & Cheng, 2011 ). In addition, Tai Chi can

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Stefano Palermi, Anna M. Sacco, Immacolata Belviso, Nastasia Marino, Francesco Gambardella, Carlo Loiacono and Felice Sirico

DM. In the management of this health care criticism, some preventive approaches have received medical attention due to a growing number of evidence in favor of their effectiveness, like the practice of Tai Chi ( Hakim, Kotroba, Cours, Teel, & Leininger, 2010 ). Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese practice

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David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán and Antonio Martínez-Amat

on balance seems to be superior to other interventions in improving self-reported function in patients with CAI. Tai Chi is widely spread all over the world, and its benefits on postural balance and lower-extremity strength are supported by several studies. 13 , 14 There is a broad consensus among

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

( Eckel et al., 2014 ; Haskell, Lee, Pate, Powell, & Blair, 2007 ). However, less than 50% of adults, in particular older adults aged55 years and older, achieve this recommendation, despite the broad recognition of its benefits ( Kernan et al., 2014 ). Tai Chi, as a traditional Chinese mind–body exercise

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman and Samuel R. Nyman

community. Exercise, including Tai Chi, and home safety interventions have been effective in reducing the risk of falls (see Gillespie et al., 2012 ). However, in most of these studies, people living with dementia have been excluded even when they are more likely to experience a fall ( Shaw, 2003

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Jin H. Yan and John H. Downing

Tai Chi, an ancieni form of Chinese fitness exercise, affords its participants a variety of physical and psychological benefits. Research has suggested that individuals engaging in Tai Chi exercises improve cardiovascular fitness and motor control while reducing stress, anxiety and depression. Tai Chi is particularly suitable for seniors, who are often at risk for a variety of problems associated with aging (e.g.. arthritis, neurological dysfunction, and general decline of balance, coordination, and locomotor function). Because of its self-paced. nonstressful, and noncompetitive nature, and its ability to afford economy of lime, space, and equipment, Tai Chi presents an effective, functional alternative exercise form for the senior adult population. This article presents the background of Tai Chi practice and introduces several key elements and suggestions for teaching Tai Chi to senior participants. Finally, some selected resources for Tai Chi practice are listed.

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Fuzhong Li, K. John Fisher, Peter Harmer and Machiko Shirai

Low-impact exercise that appeals to elderly adults and can be done almost anywhere provides both societal and individual benefits. One such program is Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese dancelike conditioning exercise. The article presents an easily adopted and adapted 8-form Tai Chi program (Easy Tai Chi) designed for older adults or individuals with mobility challenges or physical impairments. Derived from a simplified 24-form Yang-style Tai Chi, it stresses postural control and body-limb rotational movements. Easy Tai Chi can be performed either standing or sitting, depending on the physical and functional limitations of participants. Preliminary data indicate a number of health benefits of Easy Tai Chi compared with a traditional exercise program. Although subject to further empirical evaluation, Easy Tai Chi can be applied in research settings to investigate prevention or amelioration of hypokinetic diseases and in clinical settings to treat physically frail seniors or others with functional impairments of the musculoskeletal or cardiovascular system.