Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 133 items for :

  • "task force" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Gregory W. Heath, Ross C. Brownson, Judy Kruger, Rebecca Miles, Kenneth E. Powell, Leigh T. Ramsey and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services

Background:

Although a number of environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity are being widely used, there is sparse systematic information on the most effective approaches to guide population-wide interventions.

Methods:

We reviewed studies that addressed the following environmental and policy strategies to promote physical activity: community-scale urban design and land use policies and practices to increase physical activity; street-scale urban design and land use policies to increase physical activity; and transportation and travel policies and practices. These systematic reviews were based on the methods of the independent Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Exposure variables were classified according to the types of infrastructures/policies present in each study. Measures of physical activity behavior were used to assess effectiveness.

Results:

Two interventions were effective in promoting physical activity (community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use policies and practices). Additional information about applicability, other effects, and barriers to implementation are provided for these interventions. Evidence is insufficient to assess transportation policy and practices to promote physical activity.

Conclusions:

Because community- and street-scale urban design and land-use policies and practices met the Community Guide criteria for being effective physical activity interventions, implementing these policies and practices at the community-level should be a priority of public health practitioners and community decision makers.

Restricted access

Michael P. Sam

Taskforces, commissions of inquiry, and advisory committees are significant institutional features in the development of government sport policy. This study analyzes New Zealand’s Ministerial Taskforce on Sport, Fitness, and Leisure (2001) and uses empirical data gathered from observations of consultations, interviews with committee members, and available documents. It is argued that procedural, organizational, and political considerations significantly shaped and constrained the Taskforce’s findings and recommendations. Two fundamental contradictions are discussed. The first concerns the expectations for these bodies to develop both innovative and pragmatic recommendations in light of their ad hoc nature, their broad mandates, and short time lines. The second contradiction speaks to the paradoxical nature of taskforces in developing sport policy, noting in particular their dual roles as both advocates for the sport sector and investigators responsible for addressing problems and issues.

Restricted access

Billy Sperlich, Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Anna Hauser and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Purpose:

To evaluate whether upper-body compression affects power output and selected metabolic, cardiorespiratory, hemodynamic, and perceptual responses during three 3-min sessions of double-poling (DP) sprint.

Method:

Ten well-trained male athletes (25 ± 4 y, 180 ± 4 cm, 74.6 ± 3.2 kg) performed such sprints on a DP ski ergometer with and without a long-sleeved compression garment.

Result:

Mean power output was not affected by such compression (216 ± 25 W in both cases; P = 1.00, effect size [ES] = 0.00), although blood lactate concentration was lowered (P < .05, ES = 0.50–1.02). Blood gases (ES = 0.07–0.50), oxygen uptake (ES = 0.04–0.28), production of carbon dioxide (ES = 0.01–0.46), heart rate (ES = 0.00–0.21), stroke volume (ES = 0.33–0.81), and cardiac output (ES = 0.20–0.91) were also all unaffected by upper-body compression (best P = 1.00). This was also the case for changes in the tissue saturation index (ES = 0.45–1.17) and total blood content of hemoglobin (ES = 0.09–0.85), as well as ratings of perceived exertion (ES = 0.15–0.88; best P = .96).

Conclusion:

The authors conclude that the performance of well-trained athletes during 3 × 3-min DP sprints will not be enhanced by upper-body compression.

Restricted access

Michael P. Sam and Steven J. Jackson

This study illustrates how the rules and practices of a task force inquiry shaped the formulation of its policy. Adopting an institutional approach, it analyzes New Zealand’s Ministerial Taskforce on Sport, Fitness and Leisure (2001). Specifically, this article investigates the role of institutional arrangements (including public consultation and submission procedures) in shaping, delimiting, and circumscribing that task force’s findings and recommendations. The investigation consists of a critical analysis of available texts—including recorded observations of public consultations, written submissions, committee notes—and interviews with task force members. Two features of this task force are described and analyzed: (1) its terms of reference and operative assumptions and (2) its rules and procedures that guided the public participation processes. It is shown that the institutional arrangements can channel debates and thereby recast political relations among interests.

Restricted access

Riana R. Pryor, Robert A. Huggins and Douglas J. Casa

The aim of the recent Inter-Association Task Force held in Washington, D.C. at the 2013 Youth Safety Summit determined best practice recommendations for preventing sudden death in secondary school athletics. This document highlights the major health and safety practices and policies in high school athletics that are paramount to keep student athletes safe. The purpose of this commentary is to review the findings of the document developed by the task force and to provide possible areas where research is needed to continue to educate medical practitioners, players, coaches, and parents on ways to prevent tragedies from occurring during sport.

Restricted access

Standards for Curriculum and Voluntary Accreditation of Sport Management Education Programs

NASPE-NASSM Joint Task Force on Sport Management Curriculum and Accreditation

The sport business industry is among the largest industries in the United States. Sport management is the field of study offering the specialized training and education necessary for individuals seeking careers in any of the many segments of the industry. An increasing number of institutions offer sport management programs. Concern over the lack of an identified and recognized base of common knowledge for sport management resulted in the development of the NASPE-NASSM Joint Task Force on Sport Management Curriculum and Accreditation. The task force developed a competency-based minimum body of knowledge needed for baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral levels. The work resulted from study of curricular research and consultation with academicians, practitioners, and professional associations. The final document was approved as standards by professionals in June 1992.

Restricted access

Tina Lankford, Jana Wallace, David Brown, Jesus Soares, Jacqueline N. Epping and Fred Fridinger

Background:

Mass media campaigns are a necessary tool for public health practitioners to reach large populations and promote healthy behaviors. Most health scholars have concluded that mass media can significantly influence the health behaviors of populations; however the effects of such campaigns are typically modest and may require significant resources. A recent Community Preventive Services Task Force review on stand-alone mass media campaigns concluded there was insufficient evidence to determine their effectiveness in increasing physical activity, partly due to mixed methods and modest and inconsistent effects on levels of physical activity.

Methods:

A secondary analysis was performed on the campaigns evaluated in the Task Force review to determine use of campaign-building principles, channels, and levels of awareness and their impact on campaign outcomes. Each study was analyzed by 2 reviewers for inclusion of campaign building principles.

Results:

Campaigns that included 5 or more campaign principles were more likely to be successful in achieving physical activity outcomes.

Conclusion:

Campaign success is more likely if the campaign building principles (formative research, audience segmentation, message design, channel placement, process evaluation, and theory-based) are used as part of campaign design and planning.

Restricted access

Julian U. Stein

Growth and progress of the AAHPER(D) Unit on Programs for the Handicapped are traced from activities initiated during the 1965 AAHPER National Convention in Dallas through 1984 when the Unit and its services were terminated. Included in this historical review are discussions about the Task Force on Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Project on Recreation and Fitness for the Mentally Retarded, Physical Education and Recreation for the Handicapped: Information and Research Utilization Center (IRUC), Leadership Developmental Institutes (LDI), and other specific service activities conducted by the Unit during this 19-year period. Services are presented in terms of the Unit’s four basic operational objectives—leadership preparation, research, program and material development, and consultation.

Restricted access

P. Stanley Brassie

In 1987 the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) appointed a task force to develop undergraduate and graduate curricular guidelines for institutions preparing sport management professionals. The undergraduate guidelines address the three components of a sport management curriculum: (a) the foundational areas of study comprising full courses in business management, marketing, economics, accounting, finance, and computer science; (b) the application areas of study composed of sport foundations (e.g., sport sociology, sport psychology, sport history /philosophy, women in sport), sport law, sport economics, sport marketing/promotion, and sport administration; and (c) the field experiences including practical and internships. The graduate guidelines build upon the undergraduate preparation and include (a) two required courses in research methods and a project or thesis; (b) advanced application electives in sport law, sport economics, sport marketing/promotion, sport administration, facility design, and event management; and (c) the field experiences of practical and internships.