( Carron & Spink, 1993 ) and teamwork ( McEwan & Beauchamp, 2014 ) in sport and activity settings, highlight a direct link between the communication processes of team members and perceptions of task cohesion. However, to date, there is only a small body of literature ( Carron & Eys, 2012 ) in sport linking
Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink
Sarah P. McLean, Christine M. Habeeb, Pete Coffee, and Robert C. Eklund
to be empirically tested in sports teams. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to (a) examine whether collective efficacy, team-focused other-efficacy, and team-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) are predictive of task cohesion; and (b) evaluate the possibility that communication
Ali Al-Yaaribi and Maria Kavussanu
because these behaviors are more likely to have achievement-related consequences for the recipient, and we investigated their direct and indirect relationships (through affect) with two important outcomes: task cohesion and burnout. Prosocial Behavior Although much research has examined antecedents of
Matt W. Boulter, James Hardy, Ross Roberts, and Tim Woodman
research, we focus specifically on task cohesion. Indeed, the present research focuses on agentic and grandiose narcissism, whereby individuals high in this type of narcissism satisfy their core self-motives (i.e., grandiosity) through task-oriented displays of competency. Thus, task cohesion
Paul A. Estabrooks and Albert V. Carron
The study examined the relative influence of 2 forms of task cohesion on older adult exercisers’ (N = 82) self-efficacy to schedule exercise into their weekly routine. Participants had been involved with the exercise program for at least 4 months before the study began. A sequencing protocol was used to allow for task cohesion’s influence on scheduling self-efficacy. Task cohesion, as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire, was assessed during the 1st week of exercise classes after a holiday. Scheduling self-efficacy was assessed at midprogram. Attractions to the group-task and group-integration-task cohesion were sequentially entered into a hierarchical regression analysis while recent attendance was controlled for. Results showed individual attractions to the group task accounted for most of the variance in scheduling self-efficacy. R 2 = .10, F(2,80) = 4.22,p = .02; the addition of group-integration task also significantly (p < .05) added variance. R 2 = .13. F(3, 79) = 3.79, p = .01.
Lorcan Donal Cronin, Calum Alexander Arthur, James Hardy, and Nichola Callow
In this cross-sectional study, we examined a mediational model whereby transformational leadership is related to task cohesion via sacrifice. Participants were 381 American (M age = 19.87 years, SD = 1.41) Division I university athletes (188 males, 193 females) who competed in a variety of sports. Participants completed measures of coach transformational leadership, personal and teammate inside sacrifice, and task cohesion. After conducting multilevel mediation analysis, we found that both personal and teammate inside sacrifice significantly mediated the relationships between transformational leadership behaviors and task cohesion. However, there were differential patterns of these relationships for male and female athletes. Interpretation of the results highlights that coaches should endeavor to display transformational leadership behaviors as they are related to personal and teammate inside sacrifices and task cohesion.
Mark A. Eys, James Hardy, Albert V. Carron, and Mark R. Beauchamp
The general purpose of the present study was to determine if perceptions of team cohesion are related to the interpretation athletes attach to their precompetition anxiety. Specifically examined was the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group– Task, ATG-T, and Group Integration–Task, GI-T) and the degree to which perceptions of the intensity of precompetition anxiety symptoms (cognitive and somatic) were viewed as facilitative versus debilitative. Participants were athletes (N = 392) from the sports of soccer, rugby, and field hockey. Each athlete completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) after a practice session. A directionally modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) was completed just prior to a competition. Results showed that athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of both ATG-T and GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 260) = 8.96, p < .05, than athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as debilitative. Also, athletes who perceived their somatic anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 249) = 5.85, p < .05.
Laurie Eisler and Kevin S. Spink
Jean-Philippe Heuzé and Paul Fontayne
The present report provides a summary of five studies undertaken to develop a French-language instrument to assess cohesiveness in sport teams—the “Questionnaire sur l’Ambiance du Groupe” (QAG). For the initial version of the instrument, the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) was translated into French using the protocol outlined by Vallerand (1989). However, psychometric analyses undertaken in Studies 1, 2, and 3 failed to yield acceptable evidence of construct validity. Items were then revised in an attempt to make them more suitable for the French culture. Subsequent analyses in Study 4 provided support for the construct validity and reliability (internal consistency and interscale equivalence) of the QAG. In Study 5, predictive validity was demonstrated. The QAG has been found to possess satisfactory psychometric properties as a measure of cohesion in sport teams.
Albert V. Carron, Michelle M. Colman, Jennifer Wheeler, and Diane Stevens
The main purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analytic summary of the cohesion-performance relationship in sport. A secondary purpose was to examine the influence of a number of potential moderator variables. Another secondary purpose was to examine the cohesion–performance relationship reported in studies using the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). Standard literature searches produced 46 studies containing a total of 164 effect sizes. Overall, a significant moderate to large relationship was found between cohesion and performance. A moderate effect was found in studies that used the GEQ. A larger cohesion–performance effect was found in refereed publications (vs. nonpublished sources) and for female teams. These results have implications for practitioners in terms of the importance of team building to enhance team cohesion, the nature of those team-building programs (e.g., both task- or social-oriented programs should be beneficial), and their target group (e.g., both interdependent and coactive sport teams should profit).