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Theresa C. Brown and Mary D. Fry

This study examined the effects of a university recreation center intervention aimed at increasing members’ perceptions of a caring, task-involving climate. In addition, members’ perceptions of staff behaviors and their own behaviors were measured. College students (N = 282) completed questionnaires before and after an intervention designed to increase perceptions of a caring, task-involving climate. Results revealed the intervention did increase members’ perceptions of the caring, task-involving climate while reducing perceptions of the ego-involving climate. Members’ perceptions of the staff and their own positive behaviors also increased. The staff’s behaviors predicted members’ perceptions of the three types of climates; moreover, members’ perceptions of the ego-involving climate negatively predicted their caring, task-involving behaviors. The study suggests that members’ perceptions of the climate can be positively influenced through minimal training with recreation center staff and that the behaviors in which the staff engage are an antecedent to members’ perceptions of the motivational climate.

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Luke Sage and Maria Kavussanu

In this experiment we examined the effects of task and ego involvement on three measures of moral behavior—prosocial choice, observed prosocial behavior, and observed antisocial behavior—in a competitive setting. We also investigated sex differences in moral behavior. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 48) college students were randomly assigned to a task-involving, an ego-involving, or a control condition. Participants played two 10-min games of table soccer and completed measures of prosocial choice, goal involvement, goal orientation, and demographics. The two games were recorded, and frequencies of prosocial and antisocial behavior were coded. Players assigned to the task-involving condition were higher in prosocial choice than those in the ego-involving or control conditions. Individuals in the ego-involving condition displayed more antisocial behaviors than those in the task-involving or control conditions. Finally, females displayed more prosocial behaviors than males.

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Ronald G. Marteniuk, Chris J. Ivens, and Christopher P. Bertram

A pointing task was performed both while subjects stood beside and while subjects walked past targets that involved differing movement amplitudes and differing sizes. The hand kinematics were considered relative both to a fixed frame of reference in the movement environment (end effector kinematics) and to the subject's body (kinematics of the hand alone). From the former view, there were few differences between standing and walking versions of the task, indicating similarity of the kinematics of the hand. However, when the hand was considered alone, marked differences in the kinematics and spatial trajectories between standing and walking were achieved. Furthermore, kinematic analyses of the trunk showed that subjects used differing amounts of both flexion-extension and rotation movements at the waist depending on whether they were standing or walking as well as on the constraints imposed by target width and movement amplitude. The present results demonstrate the existence of motor equivalence in a combined upper and lower extremity task and that this motor equivalence is a control strategy to cope with increasing task demands. Given the complexity involved in controlling the arm, the torso, and the legs (during locomotion), the movements involved in the present tasks appear to be planned and controlled by considering the whole body as a single unit.

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Steven R. Passmore, Jeanmarie Burke, and Jim Lyons

A discrete aiming head movement task was developed to replicate Fitts’ movement paradigm. Movement time (MT) differences between young (age range 24-29 years, n = 8) and old adults (age range 75-85 years, n = 8) were examined. Cervical spine (CS) range of motion (ROM) was recorded. A head mounted motion capture device was used to evaluate task performance. Three amplitudes and three target widths generated nine indexes of difficulty (IDs). Global ROM was decreased in old adults. The ID and MT relationship was maintained with age; however, old adults were slower, more variable, and more affected by ID. Variations in target size were used as the accuracy variable for both groups. As target size increased, the old population overshot their endpoint. These data support the hypothesis that, besides musculoskeletal slowing with age, there may be age-related deterioration of central processing, planning, or perception mechanisms.

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E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels

examine the effects of emphasizing effort, improvement, and cooperative learning (i.e., task-involving climate); or intra-group rivalry, punishment of mistakes, and favoritism (i.e., ego-involving climate) to understand the effect of the coach created climate on athletes’ motivation ( Fry & Moore, 2019

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Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue

Research investigating motivational climate in sport has demonstrated a strong positive relationship between young athletes’ perceptions of a caring/task-involving climate and a range of positive outcomes, including high effort, intrinsic motivation, and prosocial behaviors ( Braithwaite, Spray

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Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry

individuals, only recognizing the top performers in the setting, and punishing mistakes made by participants. Fitness professionals who create a strong ego-involving climate send the message that success is achieved by outperforming others. The antithesis to an ego-involving climate is the task-involving

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

; Weigand & Burton, 2002 ). In other words, the more task-involving the motivational climate, the more participants’ task goal orientation increases. In a task-involving climate the instructor promotes cooperative learning, individual effort, and mastering tasks ( Nicholls, 1989 ). In an ego

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Mary D. Fry, Candace M. Hogue, Susumu Iwasaki, and Gloria B. Solomon

Research in sport psychology has revealed positive outcomes (e.g., effort, enjoyment, and sportspersonship) that occur when athletes perceive a caring/task-involving climate (C/TIC) on sport teams ( Fry & Moore, 2018 ), but studies have focused mainly on middle and high school-aged athletes

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Niranjan Chakrabhavi and Varadhan SKM

The hand is considered to be the most dexterous part of the human body, yet it comes with its limitations. A task involving a movement of an instructed finger often involves a movement of noninstructed fingers. This phenomenon is known as finger interdependence 1 or enslavement effect. 2 The