This study examined the effects of a university recreation center intervention aimed at increasing members’ perceptions of a caring, task-involving climate. In addition, members’ perceptions of staff behaviors and their own behaviors were measured. College students (N = 282) completed questionnaires before and after an intervention designed to increase perceptions of a caring, task-involving climate. Results revealed the intervention did increase members’ perceptions of the caring, task-involving climate while reducing perceptions of the ego-involving climate. Members’ perceptions of the staff and their own positive behaviors also increased. The staff’s behaviors predicted members’ perceptions of the three types of climates; moreover, members’ perceptions of the ego-involving climate negatively predicted their caring, task-involving behaviors. The study suggests that members’ perceptions of the climate can be positively influenced through minimal training with recreation center staff and that the behaviors in which the staff engage are an antecedent to members’ perceptions of the motivational climate.
Theresa C. Brown and Mary D. Fry
Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue
Research investigating motivational climate in sport has demonstrated a strong positive relationship between young athletes’ perceptions of a caring/task-involving climate and a range of positive outcomes, including high effort, intrinsic motivation, and prosocial behaviors ( Braithwaite, Spray
Mary D. Fry, Candace M. Hogue, Susumu Iwasaki, and Gloria B. Solomon
Research in sport psychology has revealed positive outcomes (e.g., effort, enjoyment, and sportspersonship) that occur when athletes perceive a caring/task-involving climate (C/TIC) on sport teams ( Fry & Moore, 2018 ), but studies have focused mainly on middle and high school-aged athletes
Kiira N. Poux and Mary D. Fry
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between studentathletes’ perceptions of the motivational climate on their sport teams and their own career exploration and engagement and athletic identity. Student-athletes (N = 101) from various National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions were administered online surveys. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between the climate variables (i.e., caring, task, and ego) and athletic identity, career self-efficacy, and career exploration/engagement. One significant function emerged: Perceptions of a high task-involving climate and moderate caring climate were positively associated with athletes’ reporting higher athletic identity, career self-efficacy, and career exploration/engagement. Results suggest that Division I athletes may benefit from having coaches who foster a caring and task-involving team climate with regard to the athletes’ development as holistic individuals who spend their college years performing at a high level of sport and also preparing for their lives after college and sports.
Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry
climate, where the focus is on individuals’ effort and improvement. Instructors who foster a task-involving climate emphasize personal mastery of skills (as opposed to normative comparisons), foster cooperation among participants, and advocate that mistakes are part of the learning process ( Nicholls
E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels
examine the effects of emphasizing effort, improvement, and cooperative learning (i.e., task-involving climate); or intra-group rivalry, punishment of mistakes, and favoritism (i.e., ego-involving climate) to understand the effect of the coach created climate on athletes’ motivation ( Fry & Moore, 2019
Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Andrew P. Hill, Jennifer Cumming, Imogen J. Aujla, and Emma Redding
The present study examined the relationship between dance-related perfectionism and perceptions of motivational climate in dance over time. In doing so, three possibilities were tested: (a) perfectionism affects perceptions of the motivational climate, (b) perceptions of the motivational climate affect perfectionism, and (c) the relationship is reciprocal. Two hundred seventy-one young dancers (M = 14.21 years old, SD = 1.96) from UK Centres for Advanced Training completed questionnaires twice, approximately 6 months apart. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that perfectionistic concerns led to increased perceptions of an ego-involving climate and decreased perceptions of a task-involving climate over time. In addition, perceptions of a task-involving climate led to increased perfectionistic strivings over time. The findings suggest that perfectionistic concerns may color perceptions of training/performing environments so that mistakes are deemed unacceptable and only superior performance is valued. They also suggest that perceptions of a task-involving climate in training/performing environments may encourage striving for excellence and perfection without promoting excessive concerns regarding their attainment.
David González-Cutre, Álvaro Sicilia, Juan Antonio Moreno, and Juan Miguel Fernández-Balboa
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating effects of social goals and perceived competence on students’ perceptions of motivational climates and dispositional flow in physical education. At the beginning of the physical education unit, 779 students, 12 to 16 years old, were asked to complete four questionnaires: Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2), which measured the perception of task- and ego-involving climates; the Social Goal Scale–Physical Education (SGS-PE); the sport competence factor of the Physical Self-Perception Profile; and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2). The results of the structural equation model showed that the task-involving climate positively predicted students’ social goals (i.e., relationship and responsibility goals) as well as their perceived competence. In turn, social goals and perceived competence positively predicted their dispositional flow. Of the total effects of task-involving climate on dispositional flow, 50% of them were direct whereas the other 50% were indirect. The ego-involving climate positively predicted dispositional flow through perceived competence. The results are discussed with reference to the ability of the teacher to create a high degree of motivation for the students so as to help them achieve optimal psychological states and continue to participate in physical activity.
Tristan L. Wallhead and Nikos Ntoumanis
This study looked at the influence of a Sport Education intervention program on students’ motivational responses in a high school physical education setting. Two intact groups were assigned curricular interventions: the Sport Education group (n = 25), which received eight 60-min lessons, and the comparison group (n = 26), which received a traditional teaching approach to sport-based activity. Pre- and postintervention measures of student enjoyment, perceived effort, perceived competence, goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and perceived autonomy were obtained for both groups. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed significant increases in student enjoyment and perceived effort in the Sport Education group only. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that increases in task-involving climate and perceived autonomy explained a significant amount of unique variance in the Sport Education students’ postintervention enjoyment, perceived effort, and perceived competence responses. The results suggest that the Sport Education curriculum may increase perceptions of a task-involving climate and perceived autonomy, and in so doing, enhance the motivation of high school students toward physical education.
Theresa C. Brown and Mary D. Fry
This study examined the relationship between college students’ perceptions of the motivational climate (i.e., caring, task- and ego-involving) in physical activity courses to their physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Midwestern university undergraduates (N = 412), enrolled in group physical activity classes, completed the following measures: class climate, physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that students who perceived a caring, task-involving climate were more likely to report high physical self-concept, hope, and happiness. A gender comparison found that while perceptions of the ego-involving climate were significantly higher for males, the ego climate did not significantly contribute to the males’ canonical correlation. In addition, while physical self-concept was positively associated with climate for both genders, males were more likely to experience higher physical self-concept than females. Results suggest positive and supportive exercise environments may not only help individuals reap the physical benefits of exercise but also the psychological benefits.