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Sergi García, Selen Razon, Robert Hristovski, Natàlia Balagué, and Gershon Tenenbaum

Drawing upon the nonlinear model of attention focus, the purpose of this study was to compare the intrinsic and intentional dynamics of task-related thoughts (TRT) in trained runners and nonrunners during an incremental maximal test. Fourteen trained runners and 14 nonrunners were assigned to 2 conditions: intrinsic (nonimposed thoughts) and intentional (imposed, task-unrelated thoughts; TUT). A significant effect of running velocity over TUT/TRT dynamics in both groups and conditions was observed (p < .001). Although, all participants received instructions to keep TUT for the entire duration of the test, an initially stable TUT phase was followed by a metastable phase (i.e., switches between TUT and TRT) an a final stable TRT phase nearing volitional exhaustion. The stable TRT phase lasted longer in runners group (p < .05) and included higher probabilities in pace monitoring thoughts subcategory (p < .05). The results revealed that trained runners seem to use TRT (i.e., pace monitoring) to maximize performance, and confirm the nonlinear model of attention focus during incremental maximal run in trained runners and nonrunners.

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Edward P. Hebert, Dennis Landin, and Melinda A. Solmon

A major focus of research on teaching and learning for the past decade has been directed toward developing an understanding of student behaviors and thought processes related to achievement. Using a mediational-processes approach, researchers have identified engagement variables that predict skill learning gains, most notably the quality and quantity of practice and student self-perceptions of efficacy and competence. We sought to extend this correlational research by examining how one aspect of instruction, task progressions, influenced students’ practice quality and task-related cognition. University students enrolled in tennis classes were taught and practiced the serve under one of three conditions, two characterized by easy-to-difficult task sequences, and the third involving practice of the criterion task. Data were collected on students’ practice trials and three task-related cognitions: motivation, self-efficacy, and perception of success. The results indicated student practice and task-related thoughts varied according to entry skill level and the condition under which they practiced. Instructional conditions involving easy-to-difficult progressions resulted in more successful and appropriate practice trials and enhanced student self-efficacy and motivation. These findings parallel those previously reported on the impact of student ability on practice quality and add to an understanding of how instructional conditions affect what students think and do in physical education class contexts.

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Alexander Tibor Latinjak

task-related thought and, thus, could lead to the experience of a frustrating distraction or a sudden insight ( Christoff, 2012 ). Moreover, mindwandering is related to the consolidation and reconsolidation of memory, just the way dreaming is ( Smallwood & Schooler, 2006 ), and therefore, it could be

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Seyyed Mohammadreza Mousavi and Takehiro Iwatsuki

considered as successful kick). Training conditions that contain rewards (or more accurately, increase learners’ expectancies for rewards) cause people to turn their attention to task-related thoughts, and also avoid the irrelevant thoughts to the task or skill performance ( Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016 ). In

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Alexander T. Latinjak

. , Balaguer N. , & Tenenbaum G. ( 2015 ). Dynamic stability of task-related thoughts in trained runners . The Sport Psychologist, 29 , 302 – 309 . doi:10.1123/tsp.2014-0094 10.1123/tsp.2014-0094 Grosu E.F. , Grosu V.T. , Popovici C. , & Preja C.A. ( 2014 , June ). The characteristics

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner, and Gershon Tenenbaum

03193146 10.3758/BF03193146 García , S. , Razon , S. , Hristovski , R. , Balagué , N. , & Tenenbaum , G. ( 2015 ). Dynamic stability of task-related thoughts in trained runners . The Sport Psychologist, 29 ( 4 ), 302 – 309 . doi:10.1123/tsp.2014-0094 10.1123/tsp.2014-0094 Hardy , C

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Phillip Ward, Yaohui He, Xiaozan Wang, and Weidong Li

.1080/02701367.2013.812001 Hebert , E. , Landin , D. , & Solmon , M. ( 2000 ). The impact of task progressions on student’s practice quality and task related thoughts . Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19 , 338 – 354 . doi:10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 Hill , H.C. , Rowan , B. , & Ball , D

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Fatih Dervent, Phillip Ward, Erhan Devrilmez, and Emi Tsuda

on student’s practice quality and task related thoughts . Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19 , 338 – 354 . doi:10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 Herold , F. , & Waring , M. ( 2017 ). Is practical subject matter knowledge still important? Examining the Siedentopian

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Yaohui He, Phillip Ward, Xiaozan Wang, and Guang Yang

Sport Supplement, 88, A4 . Hebert , E. , Landin , D. , & Solmon , M. ( 2000 ). The impact of task progressions on student’s practice quality and task related thoughts . Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19 ( 3 ), 338 – 354 . doi:10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 Ince

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Phillip Ward, Emi Tsuda, Fatih Dervent, and Erhan Devrilmez

, M. ( 2000 ). The impact of task progressions on student’s practice quality and task related thoughts . Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19 , 338 – 354 . doi:10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 10.1123/jtpe.19.3.338 Hoffman , S. ( 1987 ). Dreaming the impossible dream: The decline and fall of