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Terry A. Senne and G. Linda Rikard

Nine teacher candidates from each of two PETE programs, University A and University B, developed teaching portfolios over three consecutive semesters of comparable courses. University A teacher candidates underwent a deliberate, developmental portfolio intervention based on the Teaching/Learning Framework (Sprinthall & Thies-Sprinthall 1983), while University B candidates employed a series of portfolio categories based on reflective practice theory (Wallace, 1991) to guide their developmental growth. All teacher candidates completed Rest’s (1986) Defining Issues Test (DIT) to determine one dimension of teacher developmental growth, moral/ethical judgment. They shared perceptions of the portfolio process through focus group interviews and portfolio questionnaires as qualitative data sources. Findings indicated a significant within-group difference for University A teacher candidates, while both university groups demonstrated similarities in perceptions of the portfolio process. A crucial programmatic difference between institutions was University A’s use of the Teaching/Learning Framework, which likely led to statistically significant, positive growth on DIT gain scores. This is the first study of its kind in PETE, indicating positive teacher development from a specific and deliberate intervention designed to guide the portfolio process.

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Stephen Harvey and Shane Pill

Research commentary suggests the utilization of Tactical Games Models (TGMs) only exists in isolated instances, particularly where teachers demonstrate true fidelity to these models. In contrast, many academics have adopted TGMs into their courses. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Participants were 44 academics and 80 physical education teachers. Results showed that academics provided a myriad of reasons why teachers may not use TGMs, although all agreed on the need for increased teacher professional development in TGMs. Physical education teachers’ outlined that numerous competing versions of TGMs was confusing and they required more hands-on examples of TGMs. Results further highlighted disparities between academics and teachers’ conceptual understanding and pedagogical applications of TGMs. There is a critical need to create improved connections between academics and physical education teachers, which could be achieved through the extended examination of the micropedagogies of teachers practice in TGMs.

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Nathan Hall, Brent Bradford, José da Costa and Daniel B. Robinson

Background and Purpose: Despite widespread evidence suggesting the numerous benefits from being active in outdoor environments, children in many Western nations have recently been spending less time outdoors. This cross-sectional exploratory study provides a descriptive examination of physical education teachers’ embracement of alternative environment activities (AEAs) in physical education programs. Method: Data were collected from 225 current physical education teachers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada, through an online survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Levene’s tests, and independent t tests. Results: Significant differences were found in relation to teachers’ experiences, or lack thereof, with professional development in relation to the extent to which teachers embraced AEAs. Furthermore, cost was discovered to be the greatest perceived barrier to teaching AEAs. Discussion and Conclusions: This study reveals an established need for teachers’ professional development in teaching AEAs and for discovering ways to decrease cost barriers for teaching AEAs.

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Nicole J. Smith, Monica A.F. Lounsbery and Thomas L. McKenzie


Physical education (PE) is recommended as a source for physical activity (PA) and learning generalizable PA skills. Few studies have objectively examined high school PE, specifically its delivery, including PA, lesson contexts, and class gender composition.


We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to assess PA during 6 lesson contexts in 47 boys-only, 54 girls-only, and 63 coed lessons from 7 high schools. MANOVA assessed differences based on class gender composition.


Actual lesson length was 27.7 min, only 65% of the scheduled length of class periods. Students engaged in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) 54% of the time, with boys being more active than girls. Game play was the most dominant context (47%), and little time was allocated to knowledge and skill development. Class size, lesson length, PA, and lesson contexts all differed by class gender composition (P < .001).


Many differences in the conduct of high school PE are related to class gender composition. Boys accumulated more MVPA than girls. When held, PE lessons contributed about 25% of recommended daily PA minutes; improvements could be made by increasing allocations to fitness and skill practice and reducing transition and management time. Teacher professional development is warranted.

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Julia Walsh and Fraser Carson

umbrella. Signature pedagogies are being discussed and explored in a number of disciplines and becoming commonplace in education of professions while explicit examples can be observed in teacher education ( Eaton, Wagner, Hirashiki, & Ciancio, 2018 ), teacher professional development ( Parker, Patton, & O

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Insook Kim and Bomna Ko

provide effective professional learning experiences. Several features of effective professional learning, including content-specific curriculum/pedagogy, models of effective practices, coaching/expert support, and feedback/reflection, should be considered in designing teacher professional development

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Collin A. Webster, Diana Mindrila, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff and Sally Taunton

CSPAP. This information can be used to direct teacher professional development initiatives so that they are tailored to meet the needs of physical education teachers with different degrees of DSI. Our second aim was to examine associations between physical education teachers’ DSI, perceived school

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Yaohui He, Phillip Ward and Xiaozan Wang

knowledge may inform preservice teacher training and teacher professional development in these systems. Acknowledgments This research was sponsored by the China High-end Foreign Experts Program (grant no. GDW20153100354) and the China National Social Science Foundation (grant nos. ALA150010 and 16ZDA228

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent and Sarah Burkart

-experimental • INT ( n  = 206) vs. CON ( n  = 199) •  N  = 405, 4 centers • 3–5 years (treatment 49.93 ± 7.45 months, control 50.11 ± 7.20 months) • 95% Latino • Head Start centers in southern TX • 24 weeks • General framework curriculum, teacher professional development, and parent education • Teachers • Usual care

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Stephanie Mazzucca, Cody Neshteruk, Regan Burney, Amber E. Vaughn, Derek Hales, Truls Østbye and Dianne Ward

materials (books and posters/pictures) PA practices 3 Interactions between teachers and children around PA (eg, PA is not withheld as punishment for bad behavior) PA education and professional development 4 Frequency and content of parent and child education, teacher professional development covering