This study sought to reduce the practical concerns of six preservice physical education teachers in the Stanford Teacher Education Program (STEP) through adoption of the first six components of the Systematic Teacher Training Model. The study also sought to examine the degree to which teacher effectiveness might be enhanced as a result of this systematic teacher training program. The study employed an intensive experimental approach emphasizing repeated measures over time and an intervention. A multiple baseline ABABA design (“A” indicating the baseline measures and “B” the experimental time periods) was used. The teachers were matched by concerns and randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. The analysis indicated that the teachers assigned to the experimental group employing the systematic treatment showed a significantly greater trend toward reduction of teaching concerns and overall increases in observed teacher effectiveness.
Tina J. Hall, Lori K. Hicklin and Karen E. French
To examine the relationship between the South Carolina middle school physical education assessment results and the school characteristics. In addition, the relationship between teacher training attendance and student achievement were determined.
Student performance on four physical education indicators in 63 middle schools (and 116 teachers) were reported to the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between school characteristics as predictors of the performance indicator. ANOVAs were conducted to determine the relationship to teacher training and the performance indicators.
Statewide averages of student performance indicated that slightly over 50% of middle school students were rated as competent in all physical education indicators except health-related fitness (31.2%). The variability was high among all indicators. The correlations between the poverty index and the physical education indicators were significant and low. Teachers who attended data collection training sessions scored higher on all performance indicators, particularly health-related fitness knowledge. Teachers who attended professional development had significantly higher scores on motor skills, health-related fitness knowledge, and the overall weighted scores and approached significance on the health-related fitness performance.
This study suggests that teachers and the programs they deliver have a greater impact on student learning than do school characteristics. Teacher training and professional development is warranted. Most compelling is that the results of this study provide a strong argument against the practice of using student scores from other academic content areas to evaluate teacher effectiveness in physical education.
Cassandra Sparks, Chris Lonsdale, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson
using a cluster-randomized controlled design, the aim of this investigation was to implement a teacher training intervention focused on enhancing students’ perceptions of their teachers’ relatedness-supportive behaviors and to evaluate the intervention’s effectiveness by examining changes in other
Thomas L. McKenzie
K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin and Kim Graber
Occupational socialization theory describes the acculturation, professional preparation, and organizational socialization of physical education teachers and addresses factors that contribute to their decisions and behaviors. Utilizing occupational socialization theory as a grounding framework, this paper summarizes research conducted on teacher socialization in physical education and provides recommendations for future research. Each of the three phases of socialization is reviewed as are related constructs. The paper concludes with a discussion of socialization into physical education more generally and addresses the limitations of the current body of literature. Future researchers are encouraged to continue using occupational socialization theory as a framework though which to understand the careers and pedagogical decisions of physical education teachers.
Kate Hovey, Diana Niland and John T. Foley
Purpose: Self-efficacy, having been identified as a factor influencing teacher effectiveness, combined with the increased prevalence of outdoor education (OE) content being taught within physical education contexts, warrants the need for physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to address OE outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an OE program increased self-efficacy to teach OE among PETE students. Methods: PETE students (N = 95) were taught OE content in multiple residential environments and were evaluated using the “Survey of Self-efficacy for Teaching Outdoor Education.” Results: Results indicated a significant increase in self-efficacy scores from pretest to posttest in all content areas (OE skills, group dynamic skills, and models and theories). Overall, the OE program had a large effect in changing self-efficacy scores. Conclusion: Participation in the program positively affected PETE students’ self-efficacy for teaching OE, which may improve their ability to ultimately teach this content in physical education settings.
Natalie Jayne Lander, Lisa Michele Barnett, Helen Brown and Amanda Telford
The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable. Neither years of experience nor confidence influenced the quality of assessment tools used; however, greater FMSs training improved assessment practice regularity. Teachers more recently out of preservice were more confident in demonstrating FMSs. The results suggest that FMSs education for teachers should be a priority inclusion in both the training of preservice teachers and the ongoing professional development of in-service teachers.
Sung Hyeon Cheon, Johnmarshall Reeve, Tae Ho Yu and Hue Ryen Jang
Recognizing that students benefit when they receive autonomy-supportive teaching, the current study tested the parallel hypothesis that teachers themselves would benefit from giving autonomy support. Twenty-seven elementary, middle, and high school physical education teachers (20 males, 7 females) were randomly assigned either to participate in an autonomy-supportive intervention program (experimental group) or to teach their physical education course with their existing style (control group) within a three-wave longitudinal research design. Manipulation checks showed that the intervention was successful, as students perceived and raters scored teachers in the experimental group as displaying a more autonomy-supportive and less controlling motivating style. In the main analyses, ANCOVA-based repeated-measures analyses showed large and consistent benefits for teachers in the experimental group, including greater teaching motivation (psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and intrinsic goals), teaching skill (teaching efficacy), and teaching well-being (vitality, job satisfaction, and lesser emotional and physical exhaustion). These findings show that giving autonomy support benefits teachers in much the same way that receiving it benefits their students.
Rebecca K. Lytle and Gayle E. Hutchinson
The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and roles adapted physical educators engaged in during consultation interactions. Participants included 4 females and 2 males with experience teaching (range of 3-21 years) in the field of adapted physical education. Data collection included a demographic data sheet, two individual in-depth interviews, interview notes, document analysis, and field observations. Results indicate that participants experienced and made meaning for five distinct roles, including advocate, educator, courier, supporter/helper, and resource coordinator. These findings and future discoveries may influence curriculum and pedagogical approaches for adapted physical education teacher training programs.