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Abraham García-Fariña, Francisco Jiménez Jiménez, and M. Teresa Anguera

optimize the process. Teaching communication was conceived as an intentional and strategic act ( Powell & Kalina, 2009 ) and constitutes a resource for cognitive mediation ( Fernyhough, 2008 ). From a socioconstructivist perspective, teacher communication can fulfill three pedagogical functions through

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Collin A. Webster

Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.

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Kelly L. Simonton, Alex C. Garn, and Melinda Ann Solmon


Grounded in control-value theory, a model of students’ achievement emotions in physical education (PE) was investigated.


A path analysis tested hypotheses that students’ (N = 529) perceptions of teacher responsiveness, assertiveness, and clarity predict control and value beliefs which, in turn, predict enjoyment and boredom.


Teacher clarity predicted student control (β = .31; R 2= .09) and value (β = .21; R 2= .07) beliefs. Value and control beliefs positively predicted enjoyment (β = .71; β = .11; R 2 = .58) and negatively predicted boredom (β = -.61; β = -.13; R2 = .47).


Findings provide meaningful information about the source of students’ emotional experiences in PE. The importance of instructional clarity within the model highlights the need for teachers to use a variety of clarifying strategies during instruction. The strong links between value beliefs and emotions suggest teachers need to explicitly discuss the intrinsic and extrinsic worth of PE content.

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Collin Webster, Diana Mîndrilă, and Glenn Weaver

Little research has examined mechanisms leading to the utilization of compulsory physical education content in future contexts. This study tested a model in which motivation to be in physical education class functions as a predisposition influencing perceptions of teacher communication of content relevance, perceptions of course relevance to one’s personal life, affect for physical education and intentions to apply class content in the future. High school students (N = 636) enrolled in compulsory physical education classes completed questionnaires assessing each of these variables. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated the questionnaire items were adequate indicators of the five constructs. Structural equation modeling with diagonally weighted least squares estimation supported the hypothesized model. The results suggest that continued use of knowledge and skills learned in physical education might hinge on teachers making physical education appealing to students and communicating how class content connects with students’ personal interests.

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Collin A. Webster, Jongho Moon, Hayes Bennett, and Stephen Griffin

immediacy and content relevance are influenced by teacher communication behaviors ( Webster, 2010 ). Teachers communicate approachability to students when they enact verbal behavior, like using vocal variety, laughing, and using students’ names, and nonverbal communication behaviors, like smiling, leaning

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Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou, and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

experts reviewed the minor changes to the original items. The instrument was further modified to contain items about teacherscommunication with school-wide stakeholders. Classroom teachers were asked to rate the number of teachers, administrators, and students’ guardians/family members they had

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Melinda A. Solmon

physical education classes and identified teacher communication, caring, and enthusiasm for learning activities as factors that facilitated their engagement. Interviews and field observations of teachers who were successful in engaging disruptive and disengaged students demonstrated the importance of

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Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder, and Amelia Mays Woods

unit designed and implemented by the lead researcher. Virtual hub, Edmodo, was the online platform used for student, team, and teacher communication, game design, posting game rules and diagrams. Purpose: “to compare how two different teaching approaches had an impact on students and their teacher” (p