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Robyn Lubisco, Genevieve F.E. Birren and Ryan Vooris

employment opportunity. This was done to provide the field with a current understanding of the academic job market in sport management and how that market values aspects, such as industry experience, teaching experience, and research contributions. Literature Review The sport industry has undergone rapid

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Sandy K. Beveridge and Sandy K. Gangstead

This study investigated the effects of teaching experience and instruction on visual retention and knowledge of selected sports skills. Prior to and after 30 hours of instruction, 31 experienced teachers and 29 undergraduates were administered the Utah Skills Analysis Test (USKAT) to assess both visual retention of performance and knowledge of correct motor patterns. Before instruction, teachers performed slightly better than undergraduates on the perceptual portion of USKAT, whereas there were no significant differences on the knowledge portion. A repeated measures analysis indicated significant treatment effects across groups on both perceptual and knowledge measures, with undergraduates exhibiting greater pretest to posttest gains than teachers on both dependent variables. A one-way ANOVA conducted on gain score data of subjects blocked into high, medium, and low functional performance levels based upon pretreatment scores revealed significant differences in perceptual performance between the blocks. It was concluded that (a) both teachers and undergraduates demonstrated the ability to improve performance in qualitative skills analysis, (b) undergraduates appear more responsive to specific instructional protocol than experienced teachers, and (c) entry level performance may influence the impact of the protocol on sport skill analysis performance.

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Paul G. Schempp

An analysis of student teaching was made to determine how student teachers defined becoming a better teacher based on their actual teaching experiences in the gymnasium. Specifically, two definitions were derived from experiences the subjects identified as indicative of either progress or no progress in becoming a better teacher. A critical incident technique was employed to collect and analyze data from 20 student teachers. Data were collected in the second, sixth, and ninth weeks of a 10-week experience. Reliability of data was established by comparing exact agreements between the investigator and five impartial judges. The results of this study suggested the student teachers defined a better teacher through experiences in which a teacher-planned lesson activity was felt to have worked due to the entire class responding to the teacher’s efforts with appropriate social behavior. Incidents not indicative of a better teacher were those whereby the student teachers felt an activity they tried did not work, resulting in wasted time and inappropriate social behavior by the entire class. Further, it was found these definitions did not change throughout the student teaching experience.

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Insook Kim and Bomna Ko

With regard to teacher expertise, experience plays an essential, but insufficient role. According to Siedentop and Eldar ( 1989 ), teacher expertise depends on the context and subject matter. Teachers can develop expertise through extensive teaching experiences in specific contexts (e.g., experts

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Lorne J. Verabioff

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Burhan Parsak and Leyla Saraç

/or teaching experience affect teachers’ perceptions of the spectrum teaching styles or the use of those styles in their classes? Figure 1 —Basic structure of the primary school physical education curriculum ( MoNE, 2015 ). Over the past decade, several studies have been conducted investigating the use of

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Phillip Ward, Yaohui He, Xiaozan Wang and Weidong Li

teacher education programs play in affecting the development of content knowledge ( Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005 ). In terms of the practice of teaching, experience in terms of years of teaching is not by itself associated with gains in SCK, PCK or expertise ( Berliner, 2004 ; Ericsson, 2006 ; O

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

with little or no teaching experience ( Poole & Graham, 1996 ). In addition, the limited time available to GTAs within these courses means that it is difficult for them to realize their goals ( Adams & Brynteson, 1995 ; Roberts, Evans, & Ormond, 2006 ; Slava, Laurie, & Corbin, 1984 ). Finally, three

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Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards and Jesse L. Rhoades

before pursuing a career in the academy. This represents a slight increase in K–12 teaching experience since Metzler and Freedman’s ( 1985 ) study in which it was reported that faculty members taught in schools for an average of 5.20 years. A 2 × 3 (Institution Type × Gender) factorial ANOVA indicated

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Andrew C. Taggart

Clinical and field experiences in physical education teacher education programs have gradually been added to the student teaching experience to allow student teachers more opportunities to develop teaching skills. The quality of these experiences appears to depend largely on the many contextual variables the student teachers confront rather than the successful performance of the teaching skills being practiced. If beginning physical education teachers are to share in a pedagogy developed from research in classroom management, instructional time, and teaching strategies, and if teaching skills are to be developed specific to these areas, then repeated supervised practice in a variety of settings is needed. The teacher education program described contains a sequentially arranged pattern of nine clinical and field experiences culminating in the final student teaching experience. The essential features of the pedagogical experiences are detailed, emphasizing time engaged in practice teaching, teaching skill focus, supervisory/data collection focus, and pupil teacher ratio.