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Burhan Parsak and Leyla Saraç

Objective: The objectives of this study were to (a) identify Turkish middle-school physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of spectrum teaching styles, (b) determine the spectrum teaching styles the teachers use when teaching, and (c) examine whether gender and teaching experience were differentiating factors. Method: A convenience sample of 58 female and 62 male teachers working in 86 different middle schools located in Adana (Turkey) were recruited into the study. The data were collected using two validated instruments: the Physical Education Teachers’ Use of Teaching Styles and Perceptions of Styles Questionnaire, and the Instrument for Identifying Teaching Styles. Results: The findings based on the teachers’ reported perceptions (questionnaire data) revealed that the teachers employed the full spectrum of teaching styles in their classes, ranging from teacher centered to student centered, regardless of their gender or level of teaching experience. However, the data based on actual observations of teaching styles yielded less evidence that the self-reported styles were used in actual teaching settings. The teachers’ perceptions and their actual use of teaching styles did not vary according to the gender and/or teaching experience of the teacher. Conclusion: There is a discrepancy between teachers’ self-reported teaching styles and the actual use of the styles in their teaching.

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Nigel R. Green and Margaret E. Whitehead

elements within definition will be presented in some detail. This will include discussions of how physical literacy is informed through content, teaching approaches, and curriculum. Physical Literacy Informed Content This section answers the question, how can physical literacy inform teaching content

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Nell Faucette, Thomas L. McKenzie and James F. Sallis

A primary purpose of this study was to describe differences between self-contained and team teaching approaches when two groups of fourth- and fifth-grade classroom teachers attempted to implement a physical education curriculum during a 4-month in-service program. One school featured team teaching in pairs during physical education classes; the other used a self-contained teaching approach. The program required a minimum of three 30-min physical education classes weekly. All teachers participated in an extensive in-service training program that included weekly on-site assistance. Data collection included teachers’ lesson-completion forms, specialist’s reports, SOFIT PE class observations, teacher-completed Stages of Concern questionnaires, and teachers’ formal interviews. Results indicated that classroom teachers who used the self-contained model more consistently implemented the curriculum and more frequently expressed positive responses. Participants who used the team model for the physical education curriculum frequently strayed from the assigned pedagogical approach, ignored major portions of the program, and experienced extreme management concerns.

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Marian E. Kneer

The theory/practice gap in physical education instructional practices has been more or less assumed. Recent research employing data-based analysis has provided some insight about instructional procedures being used. There is little evidence about the existence, size, and reasons contributing to the perceived gap. Instructors N = (128) from 20 randomly selected Illinois secondary schools were interviewed via questionnaire to obtain evidence relative to the perceived gap in the use of instructional “theory.” Results indicate that an overall gap exists in the regular use of planning (40%), teaching approaches (64%), practice (31%), evaluation (40%), and teaching/learning environment procedures (18%). The reason most often given for not using recommended planning, practice, and evaluation procedures was an expressed belief that “it was not necessary” (42%). Recommended instructional practices were used significantly more often by teachers from large schools and by teachers with more inservice education. The amount of instructor teaching experience is significantly related to the use of selected instructional theory.

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Kevin Patton and Linda L. Griffin

This article describes comparative case studies of 2 of 12 veteran middle school physical education teachers participating in the Assessment Initiative for Middle School Physical Education (AIMS-PE), a reform-based teacher development project. The goals of the project were to help teachers examine and reframe their assessment practices and to design and implement curricular programs that encourage active teaching and learning. The following research questions guided this study: (a) What are the ways in which teachers changed their practices and/or beliefs concerning physical education teaching and assessment of student learning? and (b) what factors, both personal and institutional, influenced the level of changes (i.e., materials, teaching approaches, beliefs) experienced by each teacher? Three patterns of change were prominent in the teachers’ experiences: (1) increased planning and more efficient organization and management, (2) improved alignment of instruction processes and assessments, and (3) a shift in teacher roles characterized by the use of more indirect pedagogies to facilitate student-oriented small-sided games and student peer assessment. Even though these teachers made substantial changes, major shifts in assessment and instructional practices were not accomplished overnight. Changes required time, opportunity, and ongoing support.

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Tristan L. Wallhead and Nikos Ntoumanis

This study looked at the influence of a Sport Education intervention program on students’ motivational responses in a high school physical education setting. Two intact groups were assigned curricular interventions: the Sport Education group (n = 25), which received eight 60-min lessons, and the comparison group (n = 26), which received a traditional teaching approach to sport-based activity. Pre- and postintervention measures of student enjoyment, perceived effort, perceived competence, goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and perceived autonomy were obtained for both groups. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed significant increases in student enjoyment and perceived effort in the Sport Education group only. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that increases in task-involving climate and perceived autonomy explained a significant amount of unique variance in the Sport Education students’ postintervention enjoyment, perceived effort, and perceived competence responses. The results suggest that the Sport Education curriculum may increase perceptions of a task-involving climate and perceived autonomy, and in so doing, enhance the motivation of high school students toward physical education.

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Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead and Tucker Readdy

the intact classes was assigned to be taught using Sport Education, whilst the other class was taught using a direct teaching approach ( Mosston & Ashworth, 1994 ). The same teacher taught both conditions to reduce the potential of differential teacher effectiveness behaviors and communicative

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Michelle Flemons, Fiona Diffey and Dominic Cunliffe

established school expectations ( Tinning, 1988 ). These future teachers will then have the opportunity to become sustainable practitioners who will employ authentic teaching approaches in line with promoting physical literacy and hopefully also influence the socialization process of future generations

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International Sport Coaching Journal


environment. It is suggested that, to introduce the learner-centered teaching approach, a deep understanding of the institution’s culture of learning is required to address meaningful material and support learners’ engagement. Evaluating the Impact of a Coach Development Intervention for Improving Coaching

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Michel Milistetd, Pierre Trudel, Steven Rynne, Isabel Maria Ribeiro Mesquita and Juarez Vieira do Nascimento

treatments that most would call learner-centred” ( Weimer, 2013 , p. IX-X), the complementary of these four books is an asset. In an attempt to summarise the approaches espoused in these books, we compare some key characteristics of the instructor-centred teaching approach (ICT) and the learner