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Sukjoon Yoon, James F. Petrick and Sheila J. Backman

Sport fans who have formed strong connections to their favorite team may be termed loyal fans. One popular communication tool for such fans is Twitter, which has been found to be an important medium for sharing news and events, yet few studies have examined the moderating of Twitter use in a sport context. Adopting the relational approach examining the determinants of sport-fan loyalty, this study examined how Twitter use moderates the building of fan loyalty. Findings revealed that team attraction, team trust, and team involvement are positively related to team attachment. While team attachment was found to positively influence fan loyalty, sport fans’ Twitter use was found to significantly reinforce their loyalty. Specific implications for both theory and practice are discussed.

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Kostas Alexandris, Rodoula H. Tsiotsou and Jeffrey D. James

The objective of this research was to test the application of an alternative hierarchy of effects model (affect, cognition, and conation) in the context of sponsorship. Activity involvement and team attachment (affect) were proposed to influence sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition), which in turn were proposed to influence consumer behavioral intentions (conation). Fans of a professional basketball team in Greece (N = 384) participated in the study. The results provided support for the alternative hierarchy of effects model and its application in the context of sponsorship. Team attachment (affect) was shown to have both a direct and indirect relationship with behavioral intentions (conation), through its influence on sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition). Furthermore, the attraction dimension of involvement was shown to influence team attachment. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.

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Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro

activity just more avid football fans than those who do not? Dwyer ( 2011 ) found that avid fantasy participants had higher levels of team attachment than less involved participants; however, team attachment is different than sport attachment ( Robinson & Trail, 2005 ). In summary, the current study draws

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

. Extant literature on fan aggression and dysfunction has cast these outcomes as stemming from a small subset of highly identified fans. The current study introduces the concept of collective narcissism and shows that it is both distinct from the generally positive team attachment that has been so

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Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu

sport interest, team interest, vicarious achievement, role modeling, and entertainment value ( Funk, Mahoney, & Ridinger, 2002 ). Mahony, Nakazawa, Funk, James, and Gladden ( 2002 ) found drama, vicarious achievement, aesthetics, team attachment, player attachment, sport attachment, and community pride