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William R. Falcão, Gordon A. Bloom and Todd M. Loughead

The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches’ perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches’ perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented.

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Douglas E. Gardner, David L. Light Shields, Brenda Jo Light Bredemeier and Alan Bostrom

The relationship between perceived leadership behaviors and team cohesion in high school and junior college baseball and softball teams was researched. Study participants, 307 athletes representing 23 teams, responded to the perceived version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) and the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). Correlational and multivariate analyses indicated significant relationships between perceived leader behaviors and team cohesion. Specifically, coaches who were perceived as high in training and instruction, democratic behavior, social support, and positive feedback, and low in autocratic behavior, had teams that were more cohesive. A MANOVA indicated there were significant differences between genders and athletes at the two school levels in their perceptions of coaching behaviors and team cohesion, though these demographic variables did not significantly moderate the leadership-cohesion relationship.

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David W. Rainey and Gerald J. Schweickert

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Corey D. Bray and Diane E. Whaley

Previous research has demonstrated the relationship between high cohesion and optimal team performance. This study investigated the cohesion-individual performance relationship and examined expended effort as a mediator of that relationship. At the middle and end of the regular season, 41 male and 49 female varsity high school basketball players representing eight teams completed measures of group cohesion and perceived expended effort. At the same time intervals, the players’ game statistics were gathered, and coaches completed the expended effort questions regarding their players. Results partially supported the predictive ability of cohesion on objective individual performance and expended effort was a mediator of the cohesion-individual performance relationship at the end of the season. Results are discussed regarding theoretical and measurement issues. Practical implications for coaches and consultants are also provided.

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Kevin S. Spink

This study examined whether perceptions of team cohesiveness could be used to predict intention to participate during a following season. In Study 1, female participants in recreational ringette teams completed the Group Environment Questionnaire after completing the season. Intention to return for the next season also was assessed via questionnaire. Discriminant function analysis revealed that those intending to return for the next season held significantly greater perceptions of social cohesion. In Study 2, a replication of Study 1 using elite ringette team members, perceptions of social cohesion once again proved to be reliable predictors of intention to participate next season. Elite female athletes who indicated that they would return for another season were most likely to perceive the social cohesiveness with their team as high. Both studies support the conclusion that perceptions of social cohesiveness are positively related to the intention to continue to participate.

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Harry Prapavessis and Albert V. Carron

One purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cohesion and competitive state anxiety (A-state). If a cohesion-competition A-state relationship was obtained, the second purpose was to determine whether the perceived psychological benefits and/or psychological costs of cohesiveness mediate that relationship. In order to examine these issues, a sample of interactive sport-team athletes (N = 110) completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) and items related to the perceived psychological benefits and costs of membership in cohesive groups. In addition, athletes completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory–2 (CSAI-2; Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) prior to competition. Results showed that cohesion was related to A-state responses (p < .004). Specifically, individuals holding higher perceptions of task cohesion reported less cognitive A-state. Results also showed that psychological costs associated with membership on cohesive teams mediates the cohesion–A-state relationship.

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Julie Senécal, Todd M. Loughead and Gordon A. Bloom

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal–setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai’s trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal–setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.

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Heidi A. Wayment, Ann H. Huffman, Monica Lininger and Patrick C. Doyle

self-report measures (team cohesion, football identity, team belonging) and SNA-derived centrality metrics (degree, eigenvector, betweenness, and closeness). To examine whether social norms supporting concussion-reporting behavior were shared by influential and noninfluential players alike (Aim 3), we

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Duncan Simpson and Lauren P. Elberty

major themes (see Table  2 ). The structure resulted in six major themes; Emotional Response, Behavioral Response, Faith, Social Support, Team Cohesion, and Change in Life Perspective. Table 2 Higher and Lower Order Themes of Participants’ Experience of the Death of a Teammate and Sample Representative

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Gretchen Kerr, Anthony Battaglia, Ashley Stirling and Ahad Bandealy

exercise as punishment throughout their sporting careers. Examples of exercise as punishment may include continuous running, weightlifting, and holding static positions until exhaustion for reasons such as poor performances, behavioral transgressions, and to promote team cohesion ( Battaglia et al., 2017