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Nicolas Pontes, Vivian Pontes, Hyun Seung Jin, and Chris Mahar

), most have studied only one type of articulation ( Grohs et al., 2004 ; Kim et al., 2015 ; Quester & Thompson, 2001 ); and, surprisingly, none of these studies have examined how sport fans with different levels of team identification process the various types of articulation messages. Addressing this

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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue

’ identification with a specific team or team identification (team ID). In other words, those who have a stronger team ID (i.e., individuals perceive themselves as fans of the team and view the team as a representation of themselves; Branscombe & Wann, 1992 ) are more likely to experience the state of being in

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Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann, and Daehwan Kim

level of team identification, and the amount of energy that spectators gain is expected to determine their levels of happiness. Furthermore, this study proposed that the effect of team identification on spectators’ happiness would be moderated by game outcome (winning vs. losing). Specifically, we

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

Team identification—loosely defined as a psychological connection to a sport team ( Wann, 2006 )—has been covered extensively in sport management literature. For example, a wealth of research has been put into understanding both the outcomes of team identification (e.g.,  Branscombe & Wann, 1992

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Dae Hee Kwak and Sean Pradhan

the theories of compensatory consumption and identity threat, we hypothesized that different advertisements and individuals’ level of team identification would impact their evaluations of the advertiser. Team Identification and Identity Threat Social identity theory provides a useful theoretical

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Elizabeth B. Delia

identification often translate into positive behavioral outcomes for sport entities themselves ( Lock & Heere, 2017 ). Despite the benefits of team identification for fans and the sport entities they identify with, there are also negative consequences of team identification. Negative consequences of team

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Yonghwan Chang, Vicki Schull, and Lisa A. Kihl

secure their self-esteem and social acceptance through the recognition and mental negotiation of their multifaceted social characteristics. The activation of implicit team identification Among numerous types of social identity, the concept of team identification (team ID) has evolved in the sport

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Harry H. Kwon, Galen Trail, and Jeffrey D. James

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mediating effect of perceived value in the relationship between team identification and intent to purchase collegiate team-licensed apparel. Direct effect, partially mediated, and fully mediated models were compared. The respondents were students (N = 110) attending a large university in the southeastern United States. Participants first completed the Team Identification Scale and then viewed a slide depicting an article of licensed merchandise (t-shirt). Participants next completed the Perceived Value and Purchase Intention Scales. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicated that the direct effect model did not fit the data. The partially mediated and the fully mediated models fit equally well; the latter was more parsimonious and thus was chosen for further analysis. Team identification explained 13.2% of the variance in perceived value; perceived value explained 42.6% of the variance in purchase intentions. The findings indicate that team identification alone did not drive the purchase intentions in this study; it is important to take into account the perceived value of the team-licensed merchandise.

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Daniel Lock, Daniel C. Funk, Jason P. Doyle, and Heath McDonald

The propensity of strongly identified fans to contribute positive organizational outcomes for sport teams underpins why team identification maintains a central position in sport management. In the current study we examine the multidimensional structure, stability, and interrelationships between the dimensions of team identification, using longitudinal data (April 2011–April 2012) collected from fans of a new Australian Rules football team (N = 602). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the team identification items included (measured using the Team*ID scale), supported a five-dimensional model structure. This model was subsequently computed as a longitudinal CFA to test the configural and metric invariance of the Team*ID scale. We used a cross-lagged panel model to examine the longitudinal stability of, and interrelationships between, the dimensions: affect, behavioral involvement, cognitive awareness, private evaluation, and public evaluation. Each dimension displayed relative stability over time. In addition, public evaluation and private evaluation in April 2011 displayed a positive relationship with behavioral involvement in April 2012. Similarly, cognitive awareness in April 2011 predicted increases in public evaluation in April 2012. We conclude with implications for theory and practice.

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Matthew Katz and Bob Heere

The authors examined the longitudinal development of team identification among stakeholders of a newly formed intercollegiate football team to empirically measure the impact of a new football team on university identification. Using a multidimensional approach to identification, data were collected over a 3-year period and analyzed using growth curve analysis to determine the changes and trajectories of the individual dimensions of identification related to both the new football team and the larger university. Conditional growth models were used to determine the percentage of change in university identification explained by changes in team identification—to test whether new team identification drives identification with the larger university. The presented findings allow for an improved understanding of the psychological impact of a new football team for the university community by using growth curve analysis, which provides a more detailed and accurate empirical examination of identification, rather than traditional two-wave cross-lagged designs. Implications of the longitudinal nature of identification and the psychological value of a new football team for the university are discussed.