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Fergus K. O’Connor, Steven E. Stern, Thomas M. Doering, Geoffrey M. Minett, Peter R. Reaburn, Jonathan D. Bartlett and Vernon G. Coffey

reduce physical performance in hot conditions. The vast majority of previous research on thermoregulation during exercise in hot environments has focused on the endurance athlete, and there is a paucity of available data examining the effect of exercise in the heat on the team-sport athlete. 6 Some

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Jen D. Wong, Julie S. Son, Stephanie T. West, Jill J. Naar and Toni Liechty

experience of team sport participation. Although individuals are living longer than ever due to improvements in health care, negative stereotypes of older adults still persist. In Western nations, negative stereotypes of older adults include the assumption that they have health issues and cognitive

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Xavier Woorons, François Billaut and Henry Vandewalle

The physical component of successful team-sport athletes involves many different abilities such as strength, velocity, endurance, stamina, and flexibility. The ability to repeat sprints, that is, to maintain the highest velocity throughout the game, has also been found to be paramount in these

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Benjamin M. Jackson, Ted Polglaze, Brian Dawson, Trish King and Peter Peeling

. 6 While GPS devices have demonstrated a reasonable level of accuracy for measuring total distance covered during team sport competition, 7 , 8 some limitations remain. 9 Typically, distance measures become less reliable as running speed increases, and accuracy is reduced when movement occurs over

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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Rob Duffield, Sabrina Skorski, Aaron J. Coutts, Ross Julian and Tim Meyer

While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.

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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken and Brendan Egan

indicated by a decline in maximal sprint speed with subsequent sprints, that is, an increase in sprint duration over a set distance. Clearly, any ergogenic aid that can attenuate fatigue and maintain RSP in team sport athletes may prove beneficial and warrant use during competition. A wide body of

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Lucas A. Pereira, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Saul Martín-Rodríguez, Ronaldo Kobal, César C.C. Abad, Ademir F.S. Arruda, Aristide Guerriero and Irineu Loturco

, superset, and triset resistance training sessions in university rugby union players. Thus, a more complete understanding of the actual acute responses to different exercise types is clearly warranted in team-sport disciplines. One of the most common and practical ways to quantify the symptoms of fatigue

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie, Brendan R. Scott, William J. Chivers, Colin E. Sanctuary and Ben J. Dascombe

Purpose:

To identify contributing factors to the incidence of illness for professional team-sport athletes, using training load (TL), self-reported illness, and well-being data.

Methods:

Thirty-two professional rugby league players (26.0 ± 4.8 y, 99.1 ± 9.6 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m) were recruited from the same club. Players participated in prescribed training and responded to a series of questionnaires to determine the presence of self-reported illness and markers of well-being. Internal TL was determined using the session rating of perceived exertion. These data were collected over 29 wk, across the preparatory and competition macrocycles.

Results:

The predictive models developed recognized increases in internal TL (strain values of >2282 AU, weekly TL >2786 AU, and monotony >0.78 AU) to best predict when athletes are at increased risk of self-reported illness. In addition, a reduction in overall well-being (<7.25 AU) in the presence of increased internal TL, as previously stated, was highlighted as a contributor to self-reported-illness occurrence.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that self-report data can be successfully used to provide a novel understanding of the interactions between competition-associated stressors experienced by professional team-sport athletes and their susceptibility to illness. This may help coaching staff more effectively monitor players during the season and potentially implement preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of illnesses occurring.

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

 al., 2017 ). Rugby union became a professional sport in 1995, and since that time has become a faster more physically demanding sport due to law changes and different training regimes ( Austin et al., 2011 ; Quarrie & Hopkins, 2007 ). It is a team sport of intermittent high-intensity activities; rapid

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Blake D. McLean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie and Aaron J. Coutts

Global positioning systems (GPS) that are embedded in microtechnology devices have previously been shown to be reliable for measuring the activity profiles of field-based team-sport athletes. 1 In addition to GPS data, these microtechnology devices contain accelerometers that provide information