The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between team sport coaches’ power and coaching effectiveness using French and Raven’s (1959) taxonomy of power bases as a theoretical framework. Coaching effectiveness (CE) was conceptualized as an umbrella concept and four different CE outcomes were used; athletes’ satisfaction with the coach, coaches’ general influence, adaptive training behaviours, and collective efficacy. Hypotheses were made on the specific relationships between the individual power bases and the effectiveness criteria. The total sample consisted of 820 athletes (47% females), representing 56 elite and nonelite teams from three team sports (soccer, floorball, and team handball). Data were analysed separately for adults and youths. Structural equations modelling showed that 30% (in the youth sample) and 55% (in the adult sample) of the proposed hypotheses was supported. Overall, coaches’ bases of power were strongly associated with coaching effectiveness, explaining between 13% and 59% of variance in the effectiveness outcomes used. Expert power was consistently positively related to coaching effectiveness; reward and coercive power had mixed relationships (positively, negatively, unrelated) as had legitimate power (negatively, unrelated) and reward power (positively, unrelated). The results are discussed in relation to coaching effectiveness, limitations, practical implications and future research.
Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout and Daniel Bouthier
The purpose of this paper is to discuss a procedure to assess individual performance in team sports in contexts of preassessment and formative assessment. An authentic assessment procedure based on the observation of players’ actions during matches yielded two performance indices: the efficiency index and the volume of play. A general nomogram is suggested for use with various team sports in order to produce a single performance score combining both indices. Content validity, concurrent validity (.74), and ecological validity are discussed. The interobserver reliability (>.90) of the data and the stability of performance (.88) are also examined. Some conditions are discussed for integrating the assessment procedure to the teaching-learning process with an active participation of the students in the collection and interpretation of the data. The proposed procedure is strictly game oriented and yields information reflecting both motor and tactical skills.
Ted Polglaze and Matthias W. Hoppe
Metabolic power ( P met ) has been proposed as a tool to estimate the energetic demands of variable-speed locomotion typically seen in team sports. 1 From the outset, it should be stated that this model is not able to fully account for the physical demands of team-sport activity, 2 , 3 but nor
Stefan Walzel, Jonathan Robertson and Christos Anagnostopoulos
& Anagnostopoulos, 2015 ; Smith & Westerbeek, 2007 ). Within the particular context of professional team sports organizations (PTSOs), the literature on CSR has started to generate a rich body of knowledge on a broad range of issues. These include: (a) the strategic implementation of CSR ( Breitbarth, Hovemann
Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow
multiple peaks for the season. Although the yearly training plan varies considerably between and within sports, according to the athlete’s level (eg, developmental or elite), the type of competition (eg, weekly fixtures or major tournaments in team sports versus single-day events or major championships in
Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie and Ben J. Dascombe
competition, while ensuring the athletes are appropriately adapting to the training program. Together, this process should assist in minimizing the risk of undergoing excessive workloads, 1 and maximize the performance potential of athletes. In team sports, sport scientists and support staff often collect a
Werner F. Helsen, Janet L. Starkes and Nicola J. Hodges
Two studies tested the theory of deliberate practice (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer, 1993) and contrasted results with the sport commitment model (Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons, & Keeler, 1993a, 1993b). In Part I, international, national, and provincial soccer and field hockey players recalled the amount of time they spent in individual and team practice, sport-related activities, and everyday activities at the start of their career and every 3 years since. In Part II, these activities were rated in terms of their relevance for improving performance, effort and concentration required, and enjoyment. A monotonic relationship between accumulated individual plus team practice and skill level was found. In contrast with Ericsson et al.’s (1993) findings for musicians, relevant activities were also enjoyable, while concentration became a separate dimension from effort. The viability of a generalized theory of expertise is discussed.
Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout and Daniel Bouthier
The debate regarding the teaching of sport and games appears to be more complex than a matter of technical versus tactical approaches. The authors identify facets of the debate. One of these facets concerns the undifferentiated use of the terms tactics and strategy. The authors argue that these two concepts need to be clarified if decision-making and critical-thinking are to be encouraged on the part of the students. A framework is put forward for the analysis of the functioning of team sports. The framework includes: (a) an overview of the internal logic of team sports based on two essential features, the rapport of strength and the competency network; (b) an operational definition of strategy and tactics as they relate to the internal logic of team sports; and (c) nine principles underlying tactics and strategy and presented as potential guides for teachers and students in the teaching-learning of team sports and games.
Darren J. Burgess and Geraldine A. Naughton
Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.
Gordon A. Bloom, Natalie Durand-Bush and John H. Salmela
Little or no empirical research has examined the pre- and postcompetition routines of coaches. The purpose of this study was to address this oversight by conducting in-depth open-ended interviews with 21 expert coaches from four team sports. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and inductively analyzed following the procedures outlined by Côté and colleagues (1993, 1995). The results indicated that coaches had set routines for themselves and their players before and after a competition. Prior to the competition, coaches prepared and mentally rehearsed their game plan, engaged in physical activity to maintain a positive focus, held a team meeting, and occupied themselves during the warmup. Their words immediately before the game were used to stress key points. After the competition, coaches emphasized the importance of controlling their emotions and adopted different behaviors to appropriately deal with the team’s performance and outcome. A brief meeting was held to recapitulate the essential elements of the game and a detailed analysis was not presented until the next practice or meeting.