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A Season-Long Team-Building Intervention: Examining the Effect of Team Goal Setting on Cohesion

Julie Senécal, Todd M. Loughead, and Gordon A. Bloom

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal–setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai’s trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal–setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.

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The Effect of a Team Building Program on the Self-Conceptions of Grade 6 and 7 Physical Education Students

Vicki Ebbeck and Sandra L. Gibbons

This study investigated the effectiveness of a Team Building Through Physical Challenges (TBPC; Glover and Midura, 1992) program on the self-conceptions of physical education students in Grades 6 and 7. The treatment group was exposed to one TBPC activity every second week for 8 months, while the second group completed the regular physical education curriculum without any TBPC activities. Data were analyzed using 2 (treatment/control) x 2 (preintervention/postintervention) x 2 (male/female) repeated measures analysis. Results at postintervention revealed that both male and female students in the treatment group were significantly higher on perceptions of global self-worth, athletic competence, physical appearance, and social acceptance than the control group. Female students in the treatment group were also significantly higher on perceptions of scholastic competence and behavioral conduct than female students in the control group. Effect sizes indicated that meaningful as well as significant differences in self-conceptions were created by the TBPC program.

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Using the Team Environment AssessMent (TEAM) to Enhance Team Building in Sport

Mark W. Bruner, Mark Eys, Jeremie M. Carreau, Colin McLaren, and Rachel Van Woezik

is an important undertaking. One popular and established group-based intervention used by coaches and practitioners to enhance cohesion is team building (TB). TB has been recognized as one of the most prevalent and promising group-development interventions applied in sport organizations ( Bruner, Eys

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Team Building in an Exercise Setting

Albert V. Carron and Kevin S. Spink

The purpose of the study was to determine if cohesion could be enhanced in fitness classes through a psychological intervention program focusing on team-building concepts. University aerobics classes were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=8) or a control (n=9) condition. The instructors in the experimental condition were brought to a workshop where the potential benefits of cohesiveness for exercise classes were outlined and a conceptual model for team building was presented. Using the conceptual model as a frame of reference, the instructors established the specific interventions to be used in team building in their classes. Each class met three times a week for 13 weeks; the team-building strategies were implemented in classes in the experimental condition. Discriminant function analysis showed that the experimental (team-building) and control conditions could be differentiated on the basis of their cohesiveness, χ2(1) = 12.39, p<.001. Participants in the experimental condition expressed more individual attractions to the group task (ATG-Task) than participants in the control condition. A t test also showed that the team-building program significantly enhanced individual satisfaction, t(192) = 6.01, p<.001.

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Using a Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing Approach to Deliver a Team-Based Mindfulness Meditation Program to Enhance Cohesion

Piotr A. Piasecki, Todd M. Loughead, Kyle F. Paradis, and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler

needs” ( Carron et al., 1998 ; p. 213). Not surprisingly, coaches and sport psychology consultants have taken a particular interest in methods to enhance cohesion within their respective teams. Team building is one method by which to develop cohesion ( Paradis & Martin, 2012 ). The present study

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Guidelines for Delivering Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing Team Building Interventions

Nicholas L. Holt and John G.H. Dunn

The overall purpose of this study was to provide professional guidance to practitioners who may wish to deliver Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing (PDMS) team building activities. First we replicated and evaluated a PDMS intervention previously used by Dunn and Holt (2004). Fifteen members (M age = 25.4 yrs) of a high performance women’s soccer team provided evaluative data about the intervention they received via reflective interviews. Benefits of the PDMS activity were enhanced understanding, increased cohesion, and improved confidence. Guidelines for professionals who may wish to use this team building approach are provided in terms of (a) establishing group communication practices during the season, (b) delivering the meeting, and (c) demonstrating contextual sensitivity.

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The Effects of Team Building on the Adherence Patterns of Female Exercise Participants

Kevin S. Spink and Albert V. Carron

This study examined whether a team-building intervention program would positively influence participant adherence in an exercise setting. Thirteen fitness classes were randomly assigned to a team-building condition (n=6 classes) or a control condition (n=7 classes). Instructors from the team-building condition participated in a training program for team building in their classes. Instructors from the control group were neither approached nor informed of the training program. Adherence, which was monitored over a 4-week period, was assessed using measures of attendance, lateness, early departure, and withdrawal. The perception of class cohesiveness was assessed during the 8th week of class using the Group Environment Questionnaire. The team building group had significantly higher perceptions of ATG-Task than did the control group (p<.002). In terms of adherence, there were significantly fewer drop-outs and late arrivals among participants in the classes with the team-building program.

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Youth Ice Hockey Coaches’ Perceptions of a Team-Building Intervention Program

Julie Newin, Gordon A. Bloom, and Todd M. Loughead

The purpose of the current study was to explain youth ice hockey coaches’ perceptions of the effectiveness of a team-building intervention program. Eight Peewee-level hockey coaches implemented the same team-building activities with their teams throughout the regular season. Data were gathered using 3 methods. Specifically, coaches answered questions on a pre- and post-intervention form after each team-building activity, coaches’ behaviors were observed by members of the research team, and each coach completed a semistructured exit interview after the completion of the regular season. Results highlighted the benefits of the team-building intervention program. Specifically, coaches felt athletes enjoyed this experience and improved or acquired a variety of important life skills and abilities. Coaches also felt that athletes bonded during activities and improved their abilities to work together as a group. Finally, coaches felt that their own personal communication skills improved.

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A Qualitative Investigation of a Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing Team Building Activity

John G.H. Dunn and Nicholas L. Holt

This study examined 27 male intercollegiate ice hockey players’ subjective responses to a personal-disclosure mutual-sharing team building activity (cf. Crace & Hardy, 1997; Yukelson, 1997) delivered at a national championship tournament. Athletes participated in semistructured interviews 2 to 4 weeks after the team building meetings. Results revealed that the meetings were emotionally intense, and some participants described their involvement in these meetings as a significant life experience. Participants perceived certain benefits associated with the meetings including enhanced understanding (of self and others), increased cohesion (closeness and playing for each other), and improved confidence (confidence in teammates and feelings of invincibility). Results are discussed in terms of their potential to guide future applied evaluation research of team building programs in sport.

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Team Building through Mutual Sharing and Open Discussion of Team Functioning

Matthew Pain and Chris Harwood

This article describes a team building intervention with a soccer team during a competitive season. Based on a mutual sharing paradigm we facilitated a series of four team meetings in which team functioning was openly discussed. These meetings were based upon highly structured performance reviews completed by players after each match and analyzed to provide the stimulus for discussion. We adopted a single-case, time series design with multiple pretests and posttests. A postintervention focus group was also conducted with the players. Results suggest the intervention led to improvements in perceptions of team functioning (cohesion, communication, and trust and confidence in teammates), training quality, self-understanding, player ownership and team performance. Players associated the meetings with themes of honesty, open team discussion, sharing of information, and improved communication. The results support the efficacy of team building interventions designed to encourage open discussion of team functioning.