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Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull, Mike Fantigrassi and Ian Montel

, performance, and technique. Study Selection Two reviewers independently evaluated eligible manuscripts identified through the search strategy outlined in the previous section. A third independent reviewer was available to resolve any disagreements. Studies considered for inclusion met the following criteria

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Amy Waters, Elissa Phillips, Derek Panchuk and Andrew Dawson

. The purpose of this paper is to establish and compare the experiential knowledge of these two groups in relation to elite sprint running technique. A large portion of an elite coach’s knowledge is derived from experience as an athlete and/or as a coach ( Greenwood et al., 2012 ; Nash & Sproule, 2009

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Max C. Stuelcken, René E.D. Ferdinands and Peter J. Sinclair

This study aimed to investigate the bowling techniques of female fast bowlers and identify any association between a history of low back pain (LBP) and the movement patterns of the thorax relative to the pelvis during the delivery stride of the bowling action. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected from 26 elite Australian female fast bowlers using an eight-camera Vicon motion analysis system. Nineteen bowlers used a mixed action, 6 bowlers used a semiopen action, and 1 bowler used a side-on action. Fourteen bowlers had a history of LBP. Eight of these 14 bowlers used a mixed action, and bowlers with more shoulder counterrotation were no more likely to have a history of LBP. Bowlers with a history of LBP positioned the thorax in more left lateral flexion relative to the pelvis between 73–79% of the delivery stride, and moved the thorax through a significantly greater range of lateral flexion relative to the pelvis during the delivery stride compared with bowlers with no history of LBP. This information will give coaches and support staff a better understanding of female bowling technique and may facilitate better screening practices for elite female cricketers.

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Sakiko Oyama, Araceli Sosa, Rebekah Campbell and Alexandra Correa

Video recordings are used to quantitatively analyze pitchers’ techniques. However, reliability and validity of such analysis is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of joint and segment angles identified during a pitching motion using video analysis. Thirty high school baseball pitchers participated. The pitching motion was captured using 2 high-speed video cameras and a motion capture system. Two raters reviewed the videos to digitize the body segments to calculate 2-dimensional angles. The corresponding 3-dimensional angles were calculated from the motion capture data. Intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and validity of the 2-dimensional angles were determined. The intrarater and interrater reliability of the 2-dimensional angles were high for most variables. The trunk contralateral flexion at maximum external rotation was the only variable with high validity. Trunk contralateral flexion at ball release, trunk forward flexion at foot contact and ball release, shoulder elevation angle at foot contact, and maximum shoulder external rotation had moderate validity. Two-dimensional angles at the shoulder, elbow, and trunk could be measured with high reliability. However, the angles are not necessarily anatomically correct, and thus use of quantitative video analysis should be limited to angles that can be measured with good validity.

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James G. Hay

The purposes of this study were to determine the frequency with which triple jumpers used hop-dominated, balanced, and jump-dominated techniques to achieve their best distances in Olympic competition; whether the use of one of these techniques generally yielded greater actual distances than did the use of the others; and how the actual distances achieved by specific athletes were related to the way in which they distributed their efforts through the three phases. Data were collected at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. About half the competitors used a hop-dominated technique. Balanced and jump-dominated techniques were just as effective as hop-dominated techniques. Four of the top eight finishers tended to use hop percentages that were longer than the optimum for them.

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Chad Van Ramshorst and Woochol Joseph Choi

-level dancers involving 2 specified falling technical patterns. The first goal was to characterize contact forces, while the second goal was to characterize associated activation of lower-extremity muscles during landing. It was hypothesized that technique 2 would decrease knee contact forces and increase

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Roland van den Tillaar

In stick and ball games, such as hockey, ice hockey, bandy, and floorball, different shooting techniques with the stick are used to score goals. The use of these different shooting techniques is based on several factors, such as the position from the goal, defense, and the time to execute the

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Patrick Ippersiel, Richard Preuss and Shawn M. Robbins

Continuous relative phase (CRP) is an analysis technique used to study joint coordination and variability in human movement. 1 CRP is based in dynamic systems theory and quantifies the phase relationship between 2 body segments. 2 A recent review suggests that the most robust approach of

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Paul R. Surburg

This article provides insights into the use of imagery procedures with special populations. After an overview of various imagery techniques that have been used to enhance motor performance with normal persons, studies dealing with the elderly, brain and spinal cord injuries, neoplasms, and persons with mental handicaps are discussed. Issues are addressed concerning the use of imagery techniques by the researcher and practitioner. The final section of this paper deals with possible applications of imagery techniques with special populations.

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William E. Prentice

Various techniques of manual therapy are available to the sports therapist supervising a rehabilitation program. Joint mobilization and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques can be effectively used in rehabilitation of the injured knee for achieving normal joint range of motion and for strengthening the weak components of a movement pattern. Joint mobilization is used to restore normal accessory motion to the joint. The PNF strengthening techniques are used for improving normal physiological motion. These manual therapy techniques allow the sports therapist to concentrate on the rotational component of motion at the knee joint, which is often neglected in rehabilitation programs.