The purpose of this study was to assess the lifting performance of boys (N = 12; age 11.3 ± 0.8 yr), teens (N = 13; age 13.6 ± 0.6 yr), and men (N = 17; age 21.4 ± 2.1 yr) to various rest interval (RI) lengths on the bench press exercise. Each subject performed 3 sets with a 10 repetition maximum load and a 1, 2, and 3 min RI between sets. Significant differences in lifting performance between age groups were observed within each RI for selected sets with boys and teens performing significantly more total repetitions than adults following protocols with 1 min (27.9 ± 3.1, 26.9 ± 3.9, and 18.2 ± 4.1, respectively), 2 min (29.6 ± 1.0, 27.8 ± 3.5, and 21.4 ± 4.1, respectively) and 3 min (30.0 ± 0.0, 28.8 ± 2.4, and 23.9 ± 5.3, respectively) RIs. Significant differences in average velocity and average power between age groups were also observed. These findings indicate that boys and teens are better able to maintain muscle performance during intermittent moderate-intensity resistance exercise as compared with men.
Avery D. Faigenbaum, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jim McFarland, Jon Kaczmarek, Michael J. Coraggio, Jie Kang and Jay R. Hoffman
Gina Many, Maria-Eugenia Hurtado, Charles Tanner, Joseph Houmard, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Jung-Jun Park, Gabriel Uwaifo, William Kraus, James Hagberg and Eric Hoffman
We initiated a pilot study to investigate the effects of 8 wks of aerobic exercise training (ET) on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers in obese and insulin-resistant minority adolescents. Eleven morbidly obese (BMI 41.4 ± 1.8 kg/m2) minority adolescents were entered into a supervised ET intervention (~180 min/wk at 40–55%VO2PeakR [(VO2Peak − VO2Rest)/VO2Rest]). The effects of training on insulin sensitivity (SI), inflammation and other metabolic syndrome features were examined. Results: Insulin action improved in response to training, as indicated by a ~37% increase in SI (p = .018). Plasma levels of several proinflammatory cytokines were reduced in response to ET, as indicated by significant decrements in sTNF-R, CCL2, MPO, IL-6, resistin, and leptin, with no significant changes in hsCRP. ET induced reductions in BMI and percent total body fat. Conclusions: The present study supports the efficacy of ET interventions on metabolic syndrome features in morbidly obese minority youth.
Nosotros iniciamos un estudio piloto para investigar los efectos de 8 semanas de entrenamiento con ejercicios aeróbicos (EA) sobre la sensibilidad insulinica y los marcadores inflamatorios en un grupo minoritario de adolescentes abesos con resistencia a lá insulina. Once adolescentes con obesidad mórbida (IMC 41, 4+1.8kg/m2) fueron asignados a un grupo de intervención que realizo un EA supervisado (~180 min/semana al 40-55%VO2 picoR [(VO2Pico − VO2Reposo)/VO2Reposo]). Se analizo el efecto del entrenamiento sobre la sensibilidad insulinica (IS), inflamación y otras características del síndrome metabòlico. RESULATDOS: El incremento del 37% en la SI (p = 0.018) indico que La acción de la insulina mejora en respuesta al entrenamiento. Como indican la disminución significativa de sTNF-R, CCL2, MPO, IL-6, resistina, and leptina, y la falta de cambios significativos en hsCR, los niveles plasmáticos de varias citoquinas proinflamatorias se redujeron en respuesta al EA. Además, el entrenamiento produjo una reducción del IMC y del porcentaje de grasa corporal. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados del presente estudio apoyan la eficacia de una intervención con EA sobre las características del síndrome metabólico en un grupo minoritario de adolescentes con obesidad mórbida.
Lyutha K. Al Subhi, Shekar Bose and Maraim F. Al Ani
A cross-country profile of physical activity and sedentary behavior is lacking within Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) counties. The objectives were to examine prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among adolescents of 10 EMR countries, and to describe potential differences in the 2 factors by sex, age, and BMI.
A total of 23,562 adolescents were included from 10 EMR counties based on completeness of data (physical activity, sedentary behavior, age, sex, weight and height) from the Global school-based student health survey (GSHS).
Overall prevalence of physical activity (19%) is low and sedentary behavior is high (29%), with significant differences among counties. Oman had the highest (26%) and Egypt had the lowest (9%) prevalence of active students. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was the highest in United Arab Emirates (40%) and lowest in Pakistan (8%). Physical activity was lower and sedentary behavior was higher among female adolescents. A linear trend was observed between BMI and both physical activity and sedentary behavior; a similar pattern was seen with age.
There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents meeting physical activity recommendations in the 10 countries. More investigation is required to understand the cultural context of sex and BMI influence on activity patterns.
Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett
as coronary heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. 1 Yet despite these health benefits, most Americans do not engage in the recommended amounts of physical activity each week. Only 26% of men, 19% of women, 2 and 20% of teens 1 report activity levels sufficient to meet the
Sarah G. Sanders, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Natalie H. Cole, Alena Kuhlemeier, Grace L. McCauley, M. Lee Van Horn and Alberta S. Kong
school-based health centers. We will examine differences by sex, weight status, and day of the week, with the hypotheses that boys do more PA than girls, that teens with overweight and obesity do less PA than teens with normal weight, and that teens do less PA on the weekend versus weekdays. Methods
Jonathan M. Miller, Mark A. Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N. Laska, Toben F. Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
Activity in Teens) sample that included large numbers of white, African American, Hispanic, and Asian (mostly of Hmong ethnicity) participants, aims to examine whether personal, social, and neighborhood correlates of MVPA differ across ethnicity/race in adolescent boys and girls. A previous main
Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
associated with physical activity, 24 and parent fitness concerns have been positively associated with physical activity. 25 Methods Study Design Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults (EAT) is a 15-year longitudinal study with 4 waves of follow-up and a large, diverse sample that allows
Bridgette E. Wilde, Charles B. Corbin and Guy C. Le Masurier
The purpose of this study was to examine the pedometer-measured physical activity levels of high school students (Grades 9–12). Comparisons were made between sexes, among grades, among groups based on level of participation in sport and physical education, and among groups based on levels of self-reported physical activity (based on questions from the National Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System). Participants wore sealed pedometers for 4 consecutive school days. Results indicated no differences among days of monitoring but did show significant differences in mean steps per day between sexes, among grades, and among activity levels. Males took more steps per day than females did, and 10th graders took more steps than 12th graders did. Teens involved in sport and physical education took more steps than did those not involved. Teens who reported meeting both moderate and vigorous activity recommendations were most active, followed by teens meeting recommendations for moderate activity.
Pamela Fenning, Marianela Parraga, Vinita Bhojwani, Amie Meyer, Michael Molitor, Mary Malloy, Larry Labiak, Irene Taube and Father Joe Mulcrone
The purpose was to evaluate perceived sportsmanship behaviors and learning outcomes of a one-day integrated basketball clinic and tournament, titled the Sports for Mutual Admiration and Respect Among Teens (SMART) Games, cooperatively planned and implemented by over 17 agencies. Participants were 55 adolescents (28 without disabilities and 27 with hearing, cognitive/emotional, mobility, or visual disabilities), ages 14 to 18, M age = 15.5. Tournament play was in four divisions, one for each disability, with rules and skills modified accordingly. Quantitative and qualitative data collected afterwards revealed only one significant difference between genders and no significant differences between participants with and without disabilities on the other sportsmanship behaviors (competition, help with skill, equity, fair, effort). Except for ratings on perceived help with skills, sportsmanship ratings were relatively high, ranging from 3.07 to 3.56 on a 4-point scale. Perceived learning outcomes pertained to increased understanding of individual differences and sportsmanship.
Han C.G. Kemper, Robbert Verschuur and Langha de Mey
In the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study, 103 girls and 97 boys were studied five times on a longitudinal basis over a period of 8 years, covering the teenage years from 12 to 17 until young adulthood at 22/23 years. Measured were anthropometric variables such as height, weight (BW), and body fat, and physiological variables such as maximal aerobic power (V̇O2max) and endurance performance (max slope). During the teenage period, V̇O2max/BW remains constant in boys and decreases in girls whereas endurance performance increases in boys and remains constant in girls. By young adulthood V̇O2max/BW and maximal slope have declined in both sexes, and in the case of females are even lower than at the beginning of their teens. Boys superiority in aerobic fitness and the decline in aerobic fitness in both sexes is mainly caused by the differences in the intensity of daily physical activity level.