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MinKyoung Song, Robert F. Corwyn, Robert H. Bradley, and Julie C. Lumeng

decline in MVPA that begins during middle childhood and often continues into adolescence. 11 , 12 Not all children are equally prone to engage in physical activity. One factor that may predispose to low levels of MVPA is “temperament activity level.” Temperament activity level refers to the level of a

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Miranda P. Kaye, David E. Conroy, and Angela M. Fifer

This study compared the fear of failure and perfectionism constructs by analyzing their latent structure as well as their motivational antecedents and consequences. College students (N = 372) enrolled in physical activity classes completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fear of failure, perfectionism, approach and avoidance motivational temperaments, and 2 × 2 achievement goals. Structural equation modeling revealed that responses were best summarized by two correlated factors representing perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Avoidance temperament was positively associated with both forms of incompetence avoidance; however, approach temperament was positively related only to perfectionist strivings. Perfectionistic concerns were positively related to the adoption of mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals and negatively related to the adoption of mastery-approach goals. Perfectionistic strivings were positively associated with both approach goals. These results indicate that strivings to avoid incompetence can be distinguished with respect to their latent structure, temperamental antecedents, and motivational consequences.

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Theresa E. Boggess, David C. Griffey, and Lynn D. Housner

Eleven elementary physical education teachers provided information about their perceptions of 251 students’ temperament characteristics and estimates of four student aptitudes: motor ability, social interaction skills, motivation, and to what level of their potential students generally worked. Estimates of the frequency that teachers would attend to each child in typical instructional situations were also gathered. Factor analysis of the temperament measures revealed three independent factors: physical sensitivity, adaptability, and reactivity/task orientation. Teachers’ decisions to attend to children were regressed on temperament factors and student aptitude measures. The findings indicated that motor ability was the most important variable teachers reported they would use in making decisions about allocating their attention during instruction. The temperament factor reactivity/task orientation was the next most important factor. The analyses suggested that teachers would consider adaptability of students only in organizational patterns that include the whole group.

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William J. Morgan

The social theory of sport literature has taken a new and welcome critical turn in the last few years. That turn is revealed in the emergence of a Marxist-based corpus of literature which challenges headlong the fundamental tenets of mainstream (functionalist) sport sociology. The purpose of the present paper is to critically respond to this new critical theory of sport; in particular to its two major versions—what I call, respectively, vulgar Marxist, and hegemonic sport theory. I argue that both versions of this theory are conceptually flawed, and that these conceptual flaws are themselves ideologically grounded. The point of my criticisms, however, is not to undermine or otherwise deflect the critical thrust of this theory, but to suggest that that thrust requires a new conceptual scaffolding which is more sensitive to the ideological temperament of advanced capitalist society.

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Graham Jones

This paper reports a case study of a successful cognitive behavioral intervention using performance profiling. The subject, a top-10 female racket sport player, had a problem with her temperament on court, becoming angry and frustrated in pressure situations. Performance profiling was used for three major purposes: (a) to aid the sport psychologist in identifying an appropriate psychological intervention, (b) to maximize the performer’s self-motivation to partake in and adhere to the intervention, and (c) to monitor any changes during the intervention. A multimodal stress management approach was adopted using a combination of component parts from the available packages. The performance profiling technique showed significant improvements in the performer’s ability to cope with pressure situations 3 and 6 months after the intervention.

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Gary A. Sailes

This investigation examined the beliefs of college students regarding specific stereotypes about African American athletes and about college student-athletes. Beliefs about intelligence, academic integrity, and academic competitiveness among male college student-athletes, as well as assumptions about intelligence, academic preparation, style of play, competitiveness, physical superiority, athletic ability, and mental temperament in African American athletes, were investigated. A fixed alternative questionnaire was administered to 869 graduate and undergraduate students. The findings indicate that white and male students believe that athletes are not as intelligent as the typical college student and that they take easy courses to maintain their eligibility and that African American athletes are not academically prepared to attend college, are not as intelligent and do not receive as high grades as white athletes, and are generally temperamental. African American and female students believe that African American athletes are more competitive and have a different playing style than white athletes.

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Travis E. Dorsch, Alan L. Smith, and Meghan H. McDonough

The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of how parents are socialized by their children's organized youth sport participation. Five semistructured focus groups were conducted with youth sport parents (N = 26) and analyzed using qualitative methods based on Strauss and Corbin (1998). Sixty-three underlying themes reflected parents' perceived socialization experiences resulting from their children's organized youth sport participation. Each theme represented 1 of 11 subcategories of parental change, which were subsumed within four broad categories of parent sport socialization (behavior, cognition, affect, relationships). Each category of parental change was interconnected with the other three categories. Moreover, six potential moderators of parent sport socialization were documented, namely, child age, parent past sport experience, parent and child gender, child temperament, community sport context, and type of sport setting (individual or team). Together, these findings enhance understanding of parent sport socialization processes and outcomes, thus opening avenues for future research on parents in the youth sport setting.

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Laurie-Anne Kosak, Kianoush Harandian, Marie-Josée Harbec, and Linda S. Pagani

. 18 , 19 Strength and power from these measures tend to remain relatively stable between youth and adulthood. 17 Measures: Individual and Family Control Variables Individual Variables The mother’s perception of child temperament was assessed at age 1.5 years through 6 questions reflecting

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Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton, and Jessica A. Sommerville

extent is persistence distinct from other related constructs (e.g., temperament)? Test whether infants can be categorized into distinct profiles of trying behaviors based on patterns of trying force (e.g., magnitude and timing of force), and examine whether these profiles map on to traditional measure of

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

 = Adult Temperament Questionnaire; LTPA = leisure-time physical activity; MET = metabolic equivalents; IPAQ = International Physical Activity Questionnaire. a MET minutes per week is a measure of total weekly energy expenditure. Procedure All participants completed informed consent. Following a brief