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Christopher John Stevens, Megan L. Ross, Julien D. Périard, Brent S. Vallance and Louise M. Burke

Challenging environmental conditions involving high air temperature ( T air ) and humidity, combined with the demanding physical nature of elite endurance competition, create a risk of heat illness in elite athletes. As such, the International Olympic Committee has called for research that

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David P. Looney, Mark J. Buller, Andrei V. Gribok, Jayme L. Leger, Adam W. Potter, William V. Rumpler, William J. Tharion, Alexander P. Welles, Karl E. Friedl and Reed W. Hoyt

In healthcare and in general living conditions body core temperature (CT) is considered one of the most informative indicators of thermal stress ( Montain, Sawka, Cadarette, Quigley, & McKay, 1994 ; Sawka et al., 2001 ), a key indicator in thermal comfort ( Gagge et al., 1967 ), and has a wide

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Alissa C. Rhode, Lauren M. Lavelle and David C. Berry

Clinical Scenario Heat is used to accelerate the metabolic rate, decrease muscle spasm, decrease pain, increase blood flow, reduce chronic inflammation, and encourage tissue elongation. 1 – 4 Modalities used to raise tissue temperature include warm whirlpools, moist hot packs (MHPs), paraffin bath

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Sarah Daniels, Gabriela Santiago, Jennifer Cuchna and Bonnie Van Lunen

temperature, 4 and decrease tissue stiffness of trigger points, 5 among other benefits. Treatment parameters with US are typically high intensity and occur over a short period (minutes). The US machine is large and stationary, forcing patients to be nonmobile for the duration of their treatment. However

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Cordial M. Gillette and Mark A. Merrick

elevation—and the temperature effects of 2 of the 3 have been described. 13 Cryotherapy alone has been repeatedly shown to reduce intramuscular and skin temperatures 13 , 16 , 20 – 22 and cryotherapy combined with compression produces measurably cooler temperatures than ice alone, 13 but there are no

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Javier Yanci and Cristina Granados

physical performance (i.e., change of direction ability [CODA], sprints, and sled towing) and physiological responses (i.e., blood lactate and tympanic temperature) during a high-intensity training task (SSG of 4 vs. 4) in WB players. Methods Participants Thirteen Spanish first division WB male players

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck and JoLynn Leisinger

formation, 5 and decrease pain. 8 , 14 Previous research has found that wetted ice bags (IBs) and salted IBs are able to produce greater intramuscular temperature decreases than traditional cubed and crushed IBs. 15 , 16 Studies examining cooling magnitude of cryotherapy modalities often measure skin

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Steve H. Faulkner, Iris Broekhuijzen, Margherita Raccuglia, Maarten Hupperets, Simon G. Hodder and George Havenith

Endurance exercise performance progressively deteriorates as the surrounding ambient temperature increases, 1 , 2 which is exacerbated when combined with increasing humidity 3 and solar radiation. 4 Importantly, comparable negative effects of the heat, albeit with a smaller magnitude, have been

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Jennifer Ostrowski, C. Collin Herb, James Scifers, Teraka Gonzalez, Amada Jennings and Danvirg Breton

tissue temperature be increased at least 1°C (mild heating) to increase metabolic rate, by 2°C–3°C (moderate heating) to reduce muscle spasm and pain and to increase blood flow, and by at least 4°C (vigorous heating) to increase tissue extensibility. 8 , 9 Hydrocollator moist hot packs (MHPs) are

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

One of the primary goals during immediate care of orthopedic injury is to decrease tissue temperature in order to slow metabolism in the area, 1 , 2 cause vasoconstriction of superficial tissues, 3 – 5 decrease permeability, 6 prevent secondary tissue death, 7 – 9 and prevent edema formation. 6