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Gavin Cowper, Martin Barwood, and Stuart Goodall

between warm-up and the beginning of a race can be as long as 20 to 25 minutes. It appears that there is an increased risk of a reduction in core temperature ( T core ), with longer transitions, 4 and such a reduction in this time has been found to attenuate the overall decline in the T core

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Alissa C. Rhode, Lauren M. Lavelle, and David C. Berry

Clinical Scenario Heat is used to accelerate the metabolic rate, decrease muscle spasm, decrease pain, increase blood flow, reduce chronic inflammation, and encourage tissue elongation. 1 – 4 Modalities used to raise tissue temperature include warm whirlpools, moist hot packs (MHPs), paraffin bath

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Sarah Daniels, Gabriela Santiago, Jennifer Cuchna, and Bonnie Van Lunen

temperature, 4 and decrease tissue stiffness of trigger points, 5 among other benefits. Treatment parameters with US are typically high intensity and occur over a short period (minutes). The US machine is large and stationary, forcing patients to be nonmobile for the duration of their treatment. However

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Christopher John Stevens, Megan L. Ross, Julien D. Périard, Brent S. Vallance, and Louise M. Burke

Challenging environmental conditions involving high air temperature ( T air ) and humidity, combined with the demanding physical nature of elite endurance competition, create a risk of heat illness in elite athletes. As such, the International Olympic Committee has called for research that

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Javier Yanci, and Cristina Granados

physical performance (i.e., change of direction ability [CODA], sprints, and sled towing) and physiological responses (i.e., blood lactate and tympanic temperature) during a high-intensity training task (SSG of 4 vs. 4) in WB players. Methods Participants Thirteen Spanish first division WB male players

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David P. Looney, Mark J. Buller, Andrei V. Gribok, Jayme L. Leger, Adam W. Potter, William V. Rumpler, William J. Tharion, Alexander P. Welles, Karl E. Friedl, and Reed W. Hoyt

In healthcare and in general living conditions body core temperature (CT) is considered one of the most informative indicators of thermal stress ( Montain, Sawka, Cadarette, Quigley, & McKay, 1994 ; Sawka et al., 2001 ), a key indicator in thermal comfort ( Gagge et al., 1967 ), and has a wide

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Cordial M. Gillette and Mark A. Merrick

elevation—and the temperature effects of 2 of the 3 have been described. 13 Cryotherapy alone has been repeatedly shown to reduce intramuscular and skin temperatures 13 , 16 , 20 – 22 and cryotherapy combined with compression produces measurably cooler temperatures than ice alone, 13 but there are no

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, and JoLynn Leisinger

formation, 5 and decrease pain. 8 , 14 Previous research has found that wetted ice bags (IBs) and salted IBs are able to produce greater intramuscular temperature decreases than traditional cubed and crushed IBs. 15 , 16 Studies examining cooling magnitude of cryotherapy modalities often measure skin

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Courtney R. Anderson, Kara N. Gange, Bryan Christensen, and Rachelle Vettern

Key Points ▸ Wetted ice produced a greater intramuscular tissue temperature decline than Game Ready ® . ▸ Wetted ice produced a faster intramuscular tissue temperature decline than Game Ready ® . ▸ When the clinical goal is to decrease intramuscular tissue temperature, wetted ice should be

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Rachel McCormick, Nicolin Tee, and Peter Peeling

condition ( Hayashi et al., 2020 ). Furthermore, a recent investigation exploring dietary manipulation in elite endurance athletes incidentally saw a positive association between ambient temperature and hepcidin levels 3 hr after a prolonged exercise bout ( McKay et al., 2021 ). However, this study was a