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J. Luke Pryor, Brittany Christensen, Catherine G. R. Jackson and Stephanie Moore-Reed

-intensity activities depending on the tempo at which the sequence is performed. 12 Although the potential for Surya Namaskar practice to meet recommended physical activity recommendations has been studied, intensity requirements have not been designated to ensure that daily recommendations for moderate physical

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Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto and Hideki Yasuda

acquired statistical knowledge, and to determine which type of tolerance could be modulated for the acoustical or temporal changes. To answer these questions, the present study aimed to investigate whether auditory statistical learning was retained when acoustical (i.e., frequencies) and temporal (tempos

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Michal Wilk, Michal Krzysztofik, Milosz Drozd and Adam Zajac

, 15 , 17 training experience, 13 and muscle groups involved in the activity. 18 Previous studies concerning power output and the PAP effect postulated the performance of resistance exercises at volitional or fast tempo of movement, without a precise control of the duration of both the concentric

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Matthew Weston, Alan M. Batterham, Carlo Castagna, Matthew D. Portas, Christopher Barnes, Jamie Harley and Ric J. Lovell


Soccer referees’ physical match performances at the start of the second half (46–60 min) were evaluated in relation to both the corresponding phase of the first half (0–15 min) and players’ performances during the same match periods.


Match analysis data were collected (Prozone, UK) from 12 soccer referees on 152 English Premier League matches during the 2008/09 soccer season. Physical match performance categories for referees and players were total distance, high-speed running distance (speed >5.5 m/s), and sprinting distance (>7.0 m/s). The referees’ heart rate was recorded from the start of their warm-up to the end of the match. The referees’ average distances (in meters) from the ball and fouls were also calculated.


No substantial differences were observed in duration (16:42 ± 2:35 vs 16:27 ± 1:00 min) or intensity (107 ± 11 vs 106 ± 14 beats/min) of the referees’ preparation periods immediately before each half. Physical match performance was reduced during the initial phase of the second half when compared with the first half in both referees (effect sizes—standardized mean differences—0.19 to 0.73) and players (effect sizes 0.20 to 1.01). The degree of the decreased performance was consistent between referees and players for total distance (4.7 m), high-speed running (1.5 m), and sprinting (1.1 m). The referees were closer to the ball (effect size 0.52) during the opening phase the second half.


Given the similarity in the referees’ preparation periods, it may be that the reduced physical match performances observed in soccer referees during the opening stages of the second half are a consequence of a slower tempo of play.

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Samantha J. Downs, Stuart J. Fairclough, Zoe R. Knowles and Lynne M. Boddy

The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth with intellectual disabilities (ID). PA was monitored for 7 days in 70 participants, 5–15 years old, using accelerometers. There were 32 participants included in the final analysis. Habitual PA and the number of continuous bouts accrued for a range of bout lengths (5–600 s) for light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were calculated. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in the number of continuous bouts by sex, age, and ID group and between week and weekend days. Participants exhibited short sporadic bursts of activity. The number of continuous bouts decreased as the intensity and duration increased. Few differences in PA patterns were reported by sex, ID group, and age group and between week and weekend days, possibly due to the generally low PA levels in this population.

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Scott A. Conger, Alexander H.K. Montoye, Olivia Anderson, Danielle E. Boss and Jeremy A. Steeves

Speed of movement has been shown to affect the validity of physical activity (PA) monitors during locomotion. Speed of movement may also affect the validity of accelerometer-based PA monitors during other types of exercise. Purpose: To assess the ability of the Atlas Wearables Wristband2 (a PA monitor developed specifically for resistance training [RT] exercise) to identify the individual RT exercise type and count repetitions during RT exercises at various movement speeds. Methods: 50 male and female participants completed seven sets of 10 repetitions for five different upper/lower body RT exercises while wearing a Wristband2 on the left wrist. The speed of each set was completed at different metronome-paced speeds ranging from a slow speed of 4 sec·rep−1 to a fast speed of 1 sec·rep−1. Repeated Measures ANOVAs were used to compare the actual exercise type/number of repetitions among the seven different speeds. Mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and bias were calculated for repetition counting. Results: For each exercise, there tended to be significant differences between the slower speeds and the fastest speed for activity type identification and repetition counting (p < .05). Across all exercises, the highest accuracy for activity type identification (91 ± 1.8% correct overall), repetition counting (8.77 ± 0.17 of 10 reps overall) and the lowest MAPE (14 ± 1.7% overall) and bias (−1.23 ± 0.17 reps overall) occurred during the 1.5 sec·rep−1 speed (the second fastest speed tested). Conclusions: The validity of the Atlas Wearables Wristband2 to identify exercise type and count repetitions varied based on the speed of movement during RT exercises.

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Dylan C. Perry, Christopher C. Moore, Colleen J. Sands, Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Scott W. Ducharme

also effectively evoke prescribed cadences. 12 – 14 Previous music cadence entrainment (ie, music RAC) studies have modulated the tempos of laboratory-derived electronic compositions, 13 , 14 classical compositions, 12 and drum rhythms. 15 However, these musical pieces may not be analogous to more

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

centile by 20 years of age. What this illustrates is that although the brothers ended up the same height (genetically determined), the timing and tempo of growth were different between them. Child 2 attained his adolescent growth spurt 2 years earlier than Child 1, illustrated by crossing from the 75th to

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Clayton R. Kuklick and Brian T. Gearity

control of activity resulted in the new conceptual tools entitled spasmodic tempo training and atemporal training , disrupting the art of distribution resulted in variable geographic training, variable intra-geographic training , disrupting the organization of geneses resulted in fluid and fragmented

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Maria Sundqvist, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Jonas Lindh, Katja Laakso and Lena Hartelius

In this study we systematically compared syllable repetition and finger tapping in healthy adults, and explored possible impacts of tempi, metronome, musical experience, and age on motor timing ability. One hundred healthy adults used finger-tapping and syllable repetition to perform an isochronous pulse in three different tempi, with and without a metronome. Results showed that the motor timing was more accurate with finger tapping than with syllable repetition in the slowest tempo, and the motor timing ability was better with the metronome than without. Persons with musical experience showed better motor timing accuracy than persons without such experience, and the timing asynchrony increased with increasing age. The slowest tempo 90 bpm posed extra challenges to the participants. We speculate that this pattern reflects the fact that the slow tempo lies outside the 3–8 Hz syllable rate of natural speech, which in turn has been linked to theta-based oscillations in the brain.