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Gil Rodas, Lourdes Osaba, David Arteta, Ricard Pruna, Dolors Fernández and Alejandro Lucia

loci tagged by risk SNPs for tendinopathy. 8 – 10 Yet, candidate gene studies focusing on a limited number of SNPs are often limited by lack of replication and the inherently small effect size of an individual SNP, which, in turn, reduces statistical power. 11 To overcome the previously mentioned

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Keith Baar

Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is an extremely common musculoskeletal issue in elite athletes competing in jumping sports where reports of prevalence reach between 32% (basketball) and 44.6% (volleyball), whereas in body weight-supported sports such as cycling, the incidence of PT is low ( Lian et

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Lucas C. Bianco, James M. May, Smokey L. Fermin, Robert Oates and Scott W. Cheatham

Key Points ▸ Patella tendinopathy, or jumper’s knee, is common in basketball players. ▸ Treatment programs utilizing positional release therapy may be effective for patients diagnosed with patella tendinopathy. ▸ Positional release therapy paired with thigh and hip therapeutic exercise improved

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Kenneth Färnqvist, Stephen Pearson and Peter Malliaras

Tendinopathy is a general term indicating any abnormal state of a tendon, including pain, dysfunction, and, but not necessarily, pahology. 1 , 2 Pathological tendons are defined as having abnormal changes on imaging (eg, increased signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or hypoechoic

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Paula Chaves, Daniela Simões, Maria Paço, Sandra Silva, Francisco Pinho, José Alberto Duarte and Fernando Ribeiro

Patellar tendinopathy, also known as jumper’s knee, is a condition associated with load demands and excessive use of the patellar tendon, which results in a pathologic cascade of events including neovascularization, nerve ingrowth, tendon degeneration, and, ultimately, a painful tendon. 1 – 3

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Sheri A. Hale


To review the etiology of patellar tendinopathy as it relates to clinical management of chronic patellar-tendon disease in athletes.

Data Sources:

Information was gathered from a MEDLINE search of literature in English using the key words patellar tendinitis, patellar tendonitis, patellar tendinosis, patellar tendinopathy, and jumper’s knee.

Study Selection:

All relevant peer-reviewed literature in English was reviewed.

Data Synthesis:

The etiology of patellar tendinopathy is multifactorial, incorporating both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Age, muscle flexibility, training program, and knee-joint dynamics have all been associated with patellar tendinopathy. The roles of gender, body morphology, and patellar mobility in patellar tendinopathy are unclear.


The pathoetiology of patellar tendinopathy is a complex process that results from both an inflammatory response and degenerative changes. There is a tremendous need for research to improve our understanding of the pathoetiology of patellar tendinopathy and its clinical management.

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Hio Teng Leong and Siu Ngor Fu

Rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is considered to be the principal cause of shoulder pain in orthopedics and sports medicine, 1 , 2 particularly in athletes with repetitive overhead activities. 3 It is an umbrella term that includes a spectrum of pathological changes ranging from tendinopathy to

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Michael F. Joseph, Jeffrey M. Anderson, Thomas H. Trojian and John Crowley


Achilles tendon rupture is often the result of a long-term degenerative process, frequently occurring asymptomatically.


To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic Achilles tendinopathy in an active, asymptomatic, young-adult population and to compare these findings across gender.


Convenience sample, cohort study.


Research laboratory


A sample of 52 (28 male, 24 female) healthy, active subjects were recruited from the student body at the University of Connecticut. Images of 104 Achilles tendons were made.


Ultrasound images made with a Phillips HD11 with a 15-MHz real-time linear-array transducer were collected on both the longitudinal and transverse axes of the Achilles tendon. Activity level was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF).

Main Outcome Measure:

Presence of ultrasound evidence of Achilles tendinopathy as agreed on by 2 blinded assessors highly skilled in ultrasonography.


More subjects were categorized as highly active (57.4%) on the IPAQ-SF than moderately active (42.6%). One female and one male subject were found to have ultrasound evidence of asymptomatic Achilles tendinopathy, equaling 3.8% prevalence in this study.


We found a low prevalence of asymptomatic Achilles tendinopathy in an active, young-adult population. Further work is necessary to identify an optimal group warranting ultrasound screening for asymptomatic tendinopathy.

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a painful overuse condition of the patellar tendon accompanied by dysfunction typically with high levels of physical activity. 1 , 2 PT affects up to 45% of athletes involved in jumping sports. 3 Clinically, its pathological process results in decreased load

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Rodney Y. L. Wong, Patrick S. H. Yung and H. T. Leong

Softball is one of the most popular sports in recent decades. Rotator cuff tendinopathy is one of the most frequently reported overuse injuries in softball players, accounting for approximately 10% of all injuries recorded during softball competitions and practices. 1 Rotator cuff tendinopathy is