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Louis M. Ferreira, Graham J.W. King and James A. Johnson

Techniques have evolved for quantifying human tendon and ligament forces in the lower extremity 1 – 4 ; however, similar systems for the upper extremity are not well described. Friden et al described a technique for measuring tension in the brachioradialis muscle after tendon transfer 5 ; however

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

Key Points ▸ Fear-avoidance and the pain tension cycle contribute to chronic pain. ▸ Massage may modulate physiological and psychological factors associated with pain postinjury. ▸ Breaking the pain tension cycle facilitates progression in rehabilitation and earlier recovery. Pain is often

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Pepijn K.C. van de Pol, Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring

This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals’ achievement motivation.

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Scott Gallant

Sports medicine assessment and treatment techniques are ever developing and becoming more holistic. Traditional musculoskeletal assessment is changing to incorporate neural tissue pathology. Neural tension tests assess the mobility of neural tissue in the extremities and spinal canal. Positive adverse neural tension tests suggest poor mobility of neural tissue. Athletes with adverse neural tension often present with pain and decreased range of motion. These disorders can occur individually or can be associated with sports injuries. Ankle sprains, hamstring strains, tennis elbow, and thoracic outlet syndrome are some conditions that respond well to treatment of adverse neural tension. Reports of improved treatment outcomes following neural tension assessment and treatment suggest that adverse neural tension should be considered as a possible source of pain and dysfunction. This paper outlines concepts necessary to understand adverse neural tension including neuroanatomy, pathology, assessment techniques, and common sports injuries that may have an adverse neural tension component.

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Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson and Paul Davis

example, an upset stomach, feelings of physical weakness, and muscle stiffness or tension (e.g.,  Grossbard, Smith, Smoll, & Cumming, 2009 ). Physiological indices of increased arousal include elevated heart rate, secretion of stress-hormones, muscle tension, and heightened blood-pressure ( Noteboom

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William H. Clark and Jason R. Franz

-dependent modulation of soleus muscle length–tension behavior and its role in augmenting k A . We hypothesized that soleus muscle stiffness (k M ) and k A would increase with increasing muscle activation. However, we anticipated that the sensitivity of k M and k A to altered activation would change with activation

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Sue Inglis

Academic life invokes creative tensions within and among teaching, research, and service. Work–life balance plays a prominent role in those tensions and in the conversations that they engender. As NASSM’s strategic plan demonstrates, sport management has grown to the point that it will benefit from closer attention to the content and potential of those conversations. Systems thinking in the scrutiny of tensions provides insight that can further inform our conversations. The resulting discourses will engage our thinking about our discipline’s values, content, and environmental influences. As a result, they will move us forward.

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Jessica Ferreira, André Bebiano, Daniel Raro, João Martins and Anabela G. Silva

and neurophysiological integrity of the peripheral nerves in clinical populations and can be subdivided into tensioning and sliding techniques. 9 The first consists of performing joint movements that elongate the nerve till patient symptoms appear and then using the joint movement distal to the

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Max Pietrzak and Niels B.J. Vollaard

– 11 has not been fully elucidated to date. 9 , 12 , 13 Neurodynamics is a term describing mobilization of the nervous system and its surrounding structures. 14 , 15 Neurodynamic tension techniques elongate the neural tissue and are considered to increase nerve tension and strain, whereas neural

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R. Scott Kretchmar

The 2012 Academy meeting focused on research related to increasing levels of physical activity and promoting persistence. Speakers agreed that answers would be hard to come by but that progress was possible. Emphases for potential solutions ranged from the cellular to the cultural, from neural mechanisms to symbolic processes, from particle physics to philosophy. Strategies for intervention were diverse and refected a series of dynamical tensions—behavioral and nonbehavioral, cognitive and noncognitive, traditional and nontra-ditional, environmental and motivational, and finally medical in contrast to educational. It is likely, given the complexities inherent in increasing movement behaviors and assuring persistence, that various blends of solutions emerging from multiple points on the disciplinary landscape and honoring truths that run across these strategic tensions will be needed.