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Terminology Usage: A Case for Clarity

David L. Porretta, John Nesbitt, and Stan Labanowich

This article addresses the issue of terminology by discussing the terms adapted physical education, adapted physical recreation, adapted sport, and adapted physical activity. Reasons are presented which suggest that these terms, taken collectively, may best describe movement of a gross motor nature that pertains to individuals with disabilities. A terminology framework is then proposed that is based on both conceptual and practical programmatic considerations within the context of service delivery. This context utilizes all four of the above terms, which are presented within the notion of inclusion. The terms adapted physical education, adapted physical recreation, and adapted sport are conceptualized within the context of adapted physical activity. Within this service delivery context, adapted physical education refers to all curriculum-based instructional settings in educationally oriented environments, adapted physical recreation refers to activity in nonschool contexts, and adapted sport refers to high-level competition by elite performers under the governance of formal sport organizations.

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Defining Training and Performance Caliber: A Participant Classification Framework

Alannah K.A. McKay, Trent Stellingwerff, Ella S. Smith, David T. Martin, Iñigo Mujika, Vicky L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Jeremy Sheppard, and Louise M. Burke

interventions, and the potential lessons that could be inferred for the benefit of the general community. However, the sports science and sports medicine literature, from elite athletes through to sedentary individuals, has evolved over time without a common perspective or terminology to characterize the

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Medical Terminology

Daniel Vasquez

Column-editor : Robert D. Kersey

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Medical Terminology

Craig Elder

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Guidelines to Classify Subject Groups in Sport-Science Research

Kevin De Pauw, Bart Roelands, Stephen S. Cheung, Bas de Geus, Gerard Rietjens, and Romain Meeusen


The aim of this systematic literature review was to outline the various preexperimental maximal cycle-test protocols, terminology, and performance indicators currently used to classify subject groups in sportscience research and to construct a classification system for cycling-related research.


A database of 130 subject-group descriptions contains information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology of the subject groups, biometrical and physiological data, cycling experience, and parameters. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 1-way ANOVA, post hoc Bonferroni (P < .05), and trend lines were calculated on height, body mass, relative and absolute maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and peak power output (PPO).


During preexperimental testing, an initial workload of 100 W and a workload increase of 25 W are most frequently used. Three-minute stages provide the most reliable and valid measures of endurance performance. After obtaining data on a subject group, researchers apply various terms to define the group. To solve this complexity, the authors introduced the neutral term performance levels 1 to 5, representing untrained, recreationally trained, trained, well-trained, and professional subject groups, respectively. The most cited parameter in literature to define subject groups is relative VO2max, and therefore no overlap between different performance levels may occur for this principal parameter. Another significant cycling parameter is the absolute PPO. The description of additional physiological information and current and past cycling data is advised.


This review clearly shows the need to standardize the procedure for classifying subject groups. Recommendations are formulated concerning preexperimental testing, terminology, and performance indicators.

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Basic Movement and Terminology in Ballet

Kathleen M.J. Nachazel

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The Nocebo Effect and Pediatric Concussion

Michael W. Kirkwood, David R. Howell, Brian L. Brooks, Julie C. Wilson, and William P. Meehan III

context of concussion, the terminology used during discussions about the injury almost certainly affects symptom experience as well. • When discussing the term concussion, explain that it is generally considered to be a mild injury that temporarily disrupts the brain’s functioning rather than injury that

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Motor Control: A Conceptual Framework for Rehabilitation

Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli

misunderstanding among rehabilitation clinicians and neuroscience researchers about motor control theoretical frameworks and terminology. Clinicians prescribe and apply treatment interventions based on hypotheses about the effectiveness of interventions. Assessment of effectiveness follows from the process of

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Sport-Related-Concussions Pilot Study: Athletic Training Students’ Media Use and Perceptions of Media Coverage

Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell, and Justin Tatman

) discovered that news articles examined for their study used inconsistent terminology when SRCs were covered. They suggested that some of the language used in the reports likely minimizes the severity of the injury. Schwartz ( 2017 ) asserts, “The way in which the concussion topic is treated by the media has

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A Communal Language for Decision Making in Team Invasion Sports

Michael Ashford, Andrew Abraham, and Jamie Poolton

teammate to dribble towards the basket ( Ruano et al., 2015 ). Regardless of differences in terminology and underlying ontological views, shared mental models and shared affordances both suggest that by establishing a common frame of reference coaches can affect their players’ perception of information