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Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope and Ben Schram

The Nana positioning protocol is widely used to position participants to minimize technical error when undertaking body composition scanning and analysis with a Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine. Once biological and technical errors are accounted for, the only variation in test–retest results is from statistical fluctuation or machine error. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the test–retest reliability of the Nana positioning protocol and establish the smallest real difference percentage (SRD%). A gender-balanced group of 30 participants (15 males, 15 females) underwent two scans in succession using the Nana positioning protocol, with repositioning between scans. Percentage change in mean with typical error, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), and standard error measurement percentage (SEM%) were used to identify the test–retest reliability and error rate of these protocols. Additionally, SRD% was calculated to assess the point at which clinically important changes occurred in a participant. The reliabilities of the whole body and regional scans were excellent. Percentage change in mean ranged between 0.00% and 0.23%. High reproducibility of the Nana positioning protocol was evident through an ICC ranging between 0.966–1.000. Additionally, typical error, SEM%, and SRD% were all low. Interestingly, fat mass was associated with the largest fluctuations observed to be associated with any of the parameters assessed. When all sources of biological and technical errors have been accounted for, the Nana positioning protocol has excellent test–retest reliability and produces low SEM% and SRD%.

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Kristina L. Dunn, R. Curtis Bay, Javier F. Cárdenas, Matthew Anastasi, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Richelle M. Williams

has also demonstrated excellent reliability in a single test re-test reliability study. 13 Further, a test of the Sway Balance™ and the BESS/modified BESS revealed a strong inverse correlation between the two test means, suggesting that higher sway scores are associated with lower BESS scores. 12

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

& Therapeutics, 46 ( 3 ), 246 – 265 . PubMed ID: 28589631 doi:10.1111/apt.14157 10.1111/apt.14157 Gaskell , S.K. , Snipe , R.M.J. , & Costa , R.J.S. ( 2019a ). Test re-test reliability of a modified visual analogue scale assessment tool for determining incidence and severity of gastrointestinal symptom

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Lauren J. Lattimer, Joel L. Lanovaz, Jonathan P. Farthing, Stéphanie Madill, Soo Kim, Stephen Robinovitch and Cathy Arnold

with the edge of the seat, and the acromion process of the nondominant side aligned with the edge of the back of the chair. The thigh/trunk angle was set at 90°. The custom protocol was pilot tested and reliability was confirmed for 10 older and 10 younger women. Test–re-test reliability intraclass

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Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer

test re-test reliability has been reported as 0.89 and 0.77 ( Gyurcsik, Spink, Bray, Chad, & Kwan, 2006 ). The internal consistencies of the benefits and barriers scale for this sample were 0.95 and 0.84 respectively, with sub-scales ranging from 0.71 to 0.92. Data Handling and Statistical Analysis