performance processes than lactate threshold or V ˙ O 2 max . 1 Originally, testing protocols for the determination of CS and D ′ required the completion of 3 to 5 time-to-exhaustion or time trials (TT). 1 – 3 However, performing multiple tests in this manner is cumbersome and time-consuming, which may
Eva Piatrikova, Ana C. Sousa, Javier T. Gonzalez, and Sean Williams
Ming-Chang Tsai and Scott G. Thomas
To validate the 3-minute all-out exercise test (3MT) protocol against the traditional critical-speed (CS) model (CSM) in front-crawl swimming.
Ten healthy swimmers or triathletes (mean ± SD age 35.2 ± 10.5 y, height 176.5 ± 5.4 cm, body mass 69.6 ± 8.2 kg) completed 5 tests (3MT, 100m, 200m, 400m, 800m) over 2 wk on separate days. Traditional CS and anaerobic distance capacity (D′) were determined for each of the 3 traditional CSMs (linear distance-time, LIN; linear speed/time, INV; nonlinear time-speed, NLIN) from the 4 set-distance time trials. For the 3MT, CS was determined as the mean speed during the final 30 s of the test and D′ was estimated as the power-time integral above the CS.
Our results indicated no significant difference between the CS estimates determined from the traditional CSM and 3MT except for the INV model (P = .0311). Correlations between traditional CSMs and 3MT were high (r = .95, P < .01) However, D′ differed and post hoc analysis indicated that D′ estimated from 3MT was significantly lower than LIN (P = .0052) and NLIN (P < .0001). Correlations were weak (r < .55, P > .1). In addition, Bland-Altman plots between the traditional CSMs and 3MT CS estimates showed scattered points above and below the zero line, suggesting there is no consistent bias of one approach versus the other.
The 3MT is a valid protocol for swimming to estimate CS. The demonstrated concurrent validity of the 3MT may allow more widespread use of CSMs to evaluate participants and responses to training.
Luiz de França Bahia Loureiro Jr and Paulo Barbosa de Freitas
Badminton requires open and fast actions toward the shuttlecock, but there is no specific agility test for badminton players with specific movements.
To develop an agility test that simultaneously assesses perception and motor capacity and examine the test’s concurrent and construct validity and its test–retest reliability.
The Badcamp agility test consists of running as fast as possible to 6 targets placed on the corners and middle points of a rectangular area (5.6 × 4.2 m) from the start position located in the center of it, following visual stimuli presented in a luminous panel. The authors recruited 43 badminton players (17–32 y old) to evaluate concurrent (with shuttle-run agility test—SRAT) and construct validity and test–retest reliability.
Results revealed that Badcamp presents concurrent and construct validity, as its performance is strongly related to SRAT (ρ = 0.83, P < .001), with performance of experts being better than nonexpert players (P < .01). In addition, Badcamp is reliable, as no difference (P = .07) and a high intraclass correlation (ICC = .93) were found in the performance of the players on 2 different occasions.
The findings indicate that Badcamp is an effective, valid, and reliable tool to measure agility, allowing coaches and athletic trainers to evaluate players’ athletic condition and training effectiveness and possibly detect talented individuals in this sport.
James P. Veale, Alan J. Pearce, and John S. Carlson
The aim of this study was to test the reliability and construct validity of a reactive agility test (RAT), designed for Australian Football (AF).
Study I tested the reliability of the RAT, with 20 elite junior AF players (17.44 ± 0.55 y) completing the test on two occasions separated by 1 wk. Study II tested its construct validity by comparing the performance of 60 participants (16.60 ± 0.50 y) spread over three aged-matched population groups: 20 athletes participating in a State Under-18 AF league who had represented their state at national competitions (elite), 20 athletes participating in the same league who had not represented their state (subelite), and 20 healthy males who did not play AF (controls).
Test-retest reliability reported a strong correlation (0.91), with no significant difference (P = .22) between the mean results (1.74 ± 0.07 s and 1.76 ± 0.07 s) obtained (split 2+3). Nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney) revealed both AF groups performed significantly faster on all measures than the control group (ranging from P = .001 to .005), with significant differences also reported between the two AF groups (ranging from P = .001 to .046). Stepwise discriminant analyses found total time discriminated between the groups, correctly classifying 75% of the participants.
The RAT used within this study demonstrates evidence of reliability and construct validity. It further suggests the ability of a reactive component within agility test designs to discriminate among athletes of different competition levels, highlighting its importance within training activities.
Warren Young, Andrew Russell, Peter Burge, Alex Clarke, Stuart Cormack, and Glenn Stewart
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between split times within sprint tests over 30 m and 40 m in elite Australian Rules footballers.
Data were analyzed from two Australian Football League (AFL) clubs. The first club (n = 35) conducted a 40-m sprint test and recorded split times at 10 m and 20 m. The second club (n = 30) conducted a 30-m sprint test and recorded splits at 10 m and 20 m. Analyses included calculation of Pearson correlations and common variances between all the split times as well as “flying” times (20–40 m for the first club and 20 to 30 m for the second club).
There was a high correlation (r = 0.94) between 10-m time and 20-m time within each club, indicating these measures assessed very similar speed qualities. The correlations between 10-m time and times to 30 m and 40 m decreased, but still produced common variances of 79% and 66% respectively. However when the “flying” times (20–40 m and 20–30 m) were correlated to 10-m time, the common variances decreased substantially to 25% and 42% respectively, indicating uniqueness.
It was concluded that 10-m time is a good refection of acceleration capabilities and either 20 to 40 m in a 40-m sprint test or 20 to 30 m in a 30-m sprint test can be used to estimate maximum speed capabilities. It was suggested that sprint tests over 30 m or 40 m can be conducted indoors to provide useful information about independent speed qualities in athletes.
Avish P. Sharma, Adrian D. Elliott, and David J. Bentley
Road cycle racing is characterized by significant variability in exercise intensity. Existing protocols attempting to model this aspect display inadequate variation in power output. Furthermore, the reliability of protocols representative of road cycle racing is not well known. There are also minimal data regarding the physiological parameters that best predict performance during variable-power cycling.
To determine the reliability of mean power output during a new test of variable-power cycling and establish the relationship between physiological attributes typically measured during an incremental exercise test and performance during the variable-power cycling test (VCT).
Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age 33 ± 6.5 y, VO2max 57.9 ± 4.8 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion for determination of physiological attributes, 2 VCTs (plus familiarization), and a 30-km time trial. The VCT was modeled on data from elite men’s road racing and included significant variation in power output.
Mean power output during the VCT showed good reliability (r = .92, CV% = 1.98). Relative power during the self-paced sections of the VCT was most correlated with maximal aerobic power (r = .79) and power at the second ventilatory threshold (r = .69). Blood lactate concentration showed poor reliability between trials (CV% = 13.93%).
This study has demonstrated a new reliable protocol simulating the stochastic nature of road cycling races. Further research is needed to determine which factors predict performance during variable-power cycling and the validity of the test in monitoring longitudinal changes in cycling performance.
Alan Chorley, Richard P. Bott, Simon Marwood, and Kevin L. Lamb
the present study was to examine whether repeated bouts of maximal exercise, thus fully depleting W ′, affect the rate of reconstitution of W ′. A secondary aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a repeated ramp test (RRT) to quantify an individual’s reconstitution of W ′ and to
Patricia M. Kelshaw, Trenton E. Gould, Mark Jesunathadas, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell, Elizabeth D. Edwards, and Shane V. Caswell
-based assessment of the headgears’ response to controlled blunt impacts. 11 Boys’ lacrosse requires the use of hard-shell helmets that have previously been shown to reduce peak linear acceleration (PLA). 12 Some laboratory tests of men’s lacrosse helmets have shown that there is a potential for the helmets to
Kemal Idrizovic, Bahri Gjinovci, Damir Sekulic, Ognjen Uljevic, Paulo Vicente João, Miodrag Spasic, and Tine Sattler
the same testing protocol before and after the program (pretesting and posttesting). Participants The participants in this study were 47 female junior players from Kosovo [age: 16.6 (0.6) y; body mass: 59.4 (8.1) kg; height: 173.3 (4.2) cm]. All participants were younger than 18 years of age, had
Martina A. Maggioni, Matteo Bonato, Alexander Stahn, Antonio La Torre, Luca Agnello, Gianluca Vernillo, Carlo Castagna, and Giampiero Merati
basketball training; RSAT, repeated-sprint-ability training. Study Design This was a 3-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. The study procedure was performed during the regular season which lasts October to December. Participants were tested before (PRE) and after (POST) 8 weeks of training in