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Lisa Dawn Hamilton, Sari M. van Anders, David N. Cox and Neil V. Watson

The association between androgens and competition in women has been understudied compared with men. The current study examined the link between testosterone (T) and competition in elite female athletes, using a sample of female wrestlers that included athletes competing at both the national and international level. In a repeated-measures design, saliva samples were collected before and after wrestling bouts, with comparable samples of wins and losses, and subsequently analyzed for T. Study results showed a 22% increase in circulating bioavailable T from pre-to postbout, F(1, 12) = 9.71, P = .009. There was no significant difference in T between win or loss outcomes. These findings—showing a link between individual head-to-head competition and T in women—demonstrate that women’s androgenic responses to environmental contexts are dynamic and may be an important factor to address in research on competitive performance.

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

cortisol and increase testosterone levels, promoting a positive anabolic status and reduce the risk of inflammatory reactions over time in this population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify the acute effects of combined exercise about cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and

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Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Jorge Cancino, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Cristian Pérez-Luco, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Juan Del Coso and Hermann Zbinden-Foncea

, leading to abnormally high [Na + ] in sweat (i.e., >70 mmol/L; Del Coso et al., 2016 ). Notably, in in vitro and animal models, cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) have been reported to regulate the expression of CFTR. Cortisol downregulates CFTR expression ( Laube et al., 2015 ), whereas testosterone

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David R. Hooper, William J. Kraemer, Rebecca L. Stearns, Brian R. Kupchak, Brittanie M. Volk, William H. DuPont, Carl M. Maresh and Douglas J. Casa

The presence of reduced basal concentrations of testosterone in highly aerobically trained men was first documented by Wheeler et al, 1 who wanted to discover whether endurance running in men produced similar changes in basal hormones as that noted in women. Indeed, it was observed that high

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Tony Adebero, Brandon John McKinlay, Alexandros Theocharidis, Zach Root, Andrea R. Josse, Panagiota Klentrou and Bareket Falk

anabolic hormones (eg, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, growth hormone). These hormones regulate metabolic processes and play an important role in protein synthesis ( 2 , 4 , 8 , 11 , 19 ). Specifically, cortisol and testosterone have been shown to play a major role in regulating protein

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

interesting one, especially considering cortisol and testosterone are increasingly being investigated in a sporting context as highly malleable and functionally relevant biosignals of athlete readiness. 6 Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group, which may affect mood, behavior, neuromuscular

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Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield

There have been research developments around individual differences in biological markers of hormonal development. There are several sources of evidence to suggest that the prenatal markers of testosterone (2D4D) ratio is an indicator of fetal sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. The 2D4

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

were engaged in very heavy training loads. These measurements include the magnitude of the exercise-induced change in cortisol and testosterone levels, as well as plasma inflammatory markers (e.g., IL-6) ( Meeusen et al., 2013 ; Urhausen, Gabriel, & Kindermann, 1998 ). One factor implicated in aging

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

). In addition to reductions in resting metabolic rate and the inability to complete the maximal oxygen uptake test (see Figure  2g and 2h , respectively), we observed perturbations to endocrine status and hypercholesterolemia (see Figure  3 ). The observations of reduced testosterone in MMA athletes

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Christopher M. Gaviglio, Blair T. Crewther, Liam P. Kilduff, Keith A. Stokes and Christian J. Cook


To assess the measures of salivary free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected rugby union matches according to game outcome.


Twenty-two professional male rugby union players were studied across 6 games (3 wins and 3 losses). Hormone samples were taken 40 min before the game and 15 min after. The hormonal data were grouped and compared against competition outcomes. These competition outcomes included wins and losses and a game-ranked performance score (1–6).


Across the entire team, pregame testosterone concentrations were significantly higher during winning games than losses (P = 5.8 × 10−5). Analysis by playing position further revealed that, for the backs, pregame testosterone concentrations (P = 3.6 × 10−5) and the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio T:C (P = .038) were significantly greater before a win than a loss. Game-ranked performance score correlated to the team’s pregame testosterone concentrations (r = .81, P = .049). In backs, pregame testosterone (r = .91, P = .011) and T:C (r = .81, P = .05) also correlated to game-ranked performance. Analysis of the forwards’ hormone concentrations did not distinguish between game outcomes, nor did it correlate with game-ranked performance. Game venue (home vs away) only affected postgame concentrations of testosterone (P = .018) and cortisol (P = 2.58 × 10−4).


Monitoring game-day concentrations of salivary free testosterone may help identify competitive readiness in rugby union matches. The link between pregame T:C and rugby players in the back position suggests that monitoring weekly training loads and enhancing recovery modalities between games may also assist with favorable performance and outcome in rugby union matches.