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Are Body Composition, Strength, and Functional Independence Similarities Between Spinal Cord Injury Classifications? A Discriminant Analysis

Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro, and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

One form of spinal cord injury (SCI) classification is to stratify into 2 groups: tetraplegia (TP), which involves injuries between the cervical vertebrae (C6–C8), and paraplegia, between the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae (T1–L2). 1 , 2 This division is by the American Spinal Injury

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Thermoregulation During Intermittent Exercise in Athletes With a Spinal-Cord Injury

Katy E. Griggs, Christof A. Leicht, Michael J. Price, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey


Individuals with a spinal-cord injury have impaired thermoregulatory control due to a loss of sudomotor and vasomotor effectors below the lesion level. Thus, individuals with high-level lesions (tetraplegia) possess greater thermoregulatory impairment than individuals with lower-level lesions (paraplegia). Previous research has not reflected the intermittent nature and modality of wheelchair court sports or replicated typical environmental temperatures. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the thermoregulatory responses of athletes with tetraplegia and paraplegia during an intermittent-sprint protocol (ISP) and recovery in cool conditions.


Sixteen wheelchair athletes, 8 with tetraplegia (TP, body mass 65.2 ± 4.4 kg) and 8 with paraplegia (body mass 68.1 ± 12.3 kg), completed a 60-min ISP in 20.6°C ± 0.1°C, 39.6% ± 0.8% relative humidity on a wheelchair ergometer, followed by 15 min of passive recovery. Core temperature (T core) and mean (T sk) and individual skin temperatures were measured throughout.


Similar external work (P = .70, ES = 0.20) yet a greater T core (P < .05, ES = 2.27) and T sk (P < .05, ES = 1.50) response was demonstrated by TP during the ISP.


Despite similar external work, a marked increase in Tcore in TP during exercise and recovery signifies that thermoregulatory differences between the groups were predominantly due to differences in heat loss. Further increases in thermal strain were not prevented by the active and passive recovery between maximal-effort bouts of the ISP, as T core continually increased throughout the protocol in TP.

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Physical Activity and Spinal Cord Injury: Lessons Learned at the Lowest End of the Physical Activity Spectrum

Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

level of injury (NLI) determines whether the injury results in tetraplegia or paraplegia. Tetraplegia refers to impairment or loss of motor and/or sensory function in the cervical segments of the spinal cord and results in reduced or eliminated function and/or sensation in the arms, trunk, legs, and

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Enhancing Physical Activity Guidelines: A Needs Survey of Adults With Spinal Cord Injury and Health Care Professionals

Brianne L. Foulon, Valérie Lemay, Victoria Ainsworth, and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

The purpose of this study was to determine preferences of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and health care professionals (HCP) regarding the content and format of a SCI physical activity guide to support recently released SCI physical activity guidelines. Seventy-eight people with SCI and 80 HCP completed a survey questionnaire. Participants with SCI identified desired content items and their preferences for format. HCP rated the helpfulness of content items to prescribe physical activity. All content items were rated favorably by participants with SCI and useful by HCP. The risks and benefits of activity and inactivity, and strategies for becoming more active, were rated high by both samples. Photographs and separate information for those with paraplegia versus tetraplegia were strongly endorsed. These data were used to guide the development of an SCI physical activity guide to enhance the uptake of physical activity guidelines for people with SCI. The guide was publically released November 11, 2011.

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Physical Exercise for Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: Systematic Review Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

of subjects suffered from incomplete SCI (tetraplegia and paraplegia) classified as ASIA C and D (Table  3 ). Table 3 Methodological Quality and Resistance Training Grade Study Subject description Objective Intervention time FITT principles Effects of intervention Low Jayaraman et al 25 N = 5

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Spinal Cord Injury, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: A Systematic Review

Jennifer R. Tomasone, Natascha N. Wesch, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Luc Noreau

Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to report poorer quality of life (QOL) than people without a physical disability. Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has been shown to improve the QOL of people with and without disabilities and chronic conditions. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the LTPA-QOL relationship among people with SCI by focusing on both objective and subjective QOL for both global QOL and domain-specifc (physical, psychological, social) QOL. Results suggest that LTPA is significantly associated with increases in both objective and subjective QOL in global QOL and all three QOL domains, with relatively few studies demonstrating a negative or nonsignificant relationship. Recommendations for future QOL research and interventions are discussed.

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Takin' it to the Streets: A Community-University Partnership Approach to Physical Activity Research and Knowledge Translation

Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

Over the past decade, researchers have faced increasing pressure to bridge the gap between the generation of new knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into applications and products that can benefit society. SCI Action Canada is an example of a community-university partnership approach to bridging the research generation-knowledge translation gap. It is an alliance of 30 community-based organizations and university-based researchers working together to increase physical activity participation among people living with a spinal cord injury (SCI). This paper provides an overview of activities undertaken by SCI Action Canada, presented within the framework of key principles of effective knowledge translation. Recommendations are made for the cultivation of successful community-university partnerships to develop, evaluate, and implement physical activity innovations.

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A Systematic Review of the Accuracy of Estimated and Measured Resting Metabolic Rate in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

Gary J. Farkas, Marika A. Pitot, and David R. Gater Jr.

, human subjects/patients, and adult participants 18 years and older. Search terms were selected from known original research studies and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in MEDLINE/PubMed relevant to the title and/or abstracts. The following search terms were included: spinal cord injury, tetraplegia

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Differences of Relative and Absolute Strength of Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury From Able-Bodied Subjects: A Discriminant Analysis

Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Ricardo Tanhoffer, Martim Bottaro, and Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CG, control group; HP, high paraplegia (T1–T6); LP, low paraplegia (T7–L3); na, not applicable; PAS, Physical Activity Scale; TP, tetraplegia (C6–C8); TSI, time since injury. Note: The variables are shown by median (25th–75th percentiles); height is shown by mean (SD), and

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Physical Activity, Quality of Life, and Functional Autonomy of Adults With Spinal Cord Injuries

Camilla Yuri Kawanishi and Márcia Greguol

This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities.