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T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele

activity engagement, which is one of the goals of the professional discipline. Theory of Planned Behavior Along with several other theories, Crocker ( 1993 ) speculated that the theory of planned behavior would be particularly well-suited for use in research within the field of adapted physical activity

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W. Kerry Mummery and Leonard M. Wankel

This study examined the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict training adherence in a sample of adolescent competitive swimmers. Participants (N= 116, mean age = 14.8 years), who were drawn from 19 competitive swimming clubs from across Canada, completed measures relating to TPB before a major training cycle in their swim season. Results showed that training intention was significantly related to training behavior and that the direct measures of TPB (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) predicted a significant portion of the variance in the measure of training intention. Subsequently splitting the attitude measure into affective and instrumental components revealed that the instrumental portion of the attitudinal measure contributed significantly to predicting training intention, whereas the affective portion did not. These findings suggest that TPB offers insight into training behavior and that the two measures of evaluative attitude contribute differently to predicting training intention.

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Emily M. Hartley, Matthew C. Hoch and Robert J. Cramer

participation and compliance, the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) are the most commonly used within health-related research and have been investigated together to predict participation in other preventative health behaviors. 10 , 13 The purposes of this paper are to examine the

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Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon and Paul Branscum

 al., 2018 ). Having strong theoretical underpinnings is important for public health and behavior change interventions in order to understand, address, and report factors that will be most successful in mediating behavior change in a systematic and evidence-based way. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has

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Phillip Conatser, Martin Block and Bruce Gansneder

The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors’ beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors’ Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities— Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors’ beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors’ inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors’ behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

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Elske Stolte, Marijke Hopman-Rock, Marja J. Aartsen, Theo G. van Tilburg and Astrid Chorus

determinants need to be targeted. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a frequently used theoretical framework to design behavior change interventions ( Glanz & Bishop, 2010 ). The TPB states that intention, which is defined as indications of how hard people are willing to try to perform the behavior, is

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Mihalis Atsalakis and Mike Sleap

Community physical activity programs are a means by which children may be provided with appropriate physical activity, although it is not yet known how children register in these programs. In this research, registration of young children in community physical activity programs was assumed to be a product of decisions made by their parents. The purpose of the research was to explore the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting registration of children in a community physical activity program from decisions made by their parents. A simple random sample of 400 first-grade elementary school children resident in Heraklion, Crete, was selected. Their parents completed a questionnaire corresponding to the framework of the theory of planned behavior. It was concluded that the theory of planned behavior is valid in predicting the defined behavior.

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Rachel N. Dean, Jocelyn M. Farrell, Mary Lou Kelley, M. Jane Taylor and Ryan E. Rhodes

The purpose of this study was to use the constructs of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to gain a better understanding of the factors influencing older adults’ participation in strength training. Two hundred men and women age 55 years and older were purposely sampled from seniors’ centers in Ontario Canada. Participants completed a TPB questionnaire and reported their current physical activity participation. It was hypothesized that perceived behavioral control followed by attitude would be the strongest determinants of strength-training intentions and that intention would be the strongest determinant of strength-training behavior. Regression analyses revealed that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control explained 42% of the variance in intention and intention explained 40% of the variance in behavior. Gender and current strength-training participation did not significantly moderate the relationship between the TPB variables. The results suggest that interventions targeting subjective norm and perceived control might be helpful in promoting strength-training behavior among older adults.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Kimberly Oliver and Nate McCaughtry

Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Mexican American children’s physical activity and related psychosocial variables is scarce. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict Mexican American children’s self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Children (N = 475, ages 9-12) completed questionnaires assessing the TPB constructs and MVPA. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for the ability of the TPB variables to predict MVPA as we accounted for between 8-9% of the variance in MVPA. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 45% of the variance in intention. Descriptive results were encouraging because mean values indicated that most children had positive attitudes, moderately strong intentions, felt in control, and perceived support from significant others (i.e., physical education teachers) for their physical activity engagement.

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Thomas E. Hannan, Robyn L. Moffitt, David L. Neumann and Patrick R. Thomas

This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention–behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement.