Deliberate practice (DP), an activity aimed at enhancing an individual’s performance, has been reported to be crucial for achieving a state of expertise in various domains, such as education, music, and sport. In this article, the relationships between DP and the process of athletic performance adaptation are explored by elaborating on the main principle of the theory of training—periodization. We argue that periodization should be considered as a mechanism for ensuring DP, and that the implementation of periodization principles (cycles and phases) in DP activities can facilitate adaptation processes leading to expert performance. We describe the characteristics and features of DP, review a series of studies on DP and athletic performance (N = 21), discuss the importance of periodization in sport training, and outline a number of benefits of periodization. A model that emphasizes the link between periodization and DP activities in each phase of sport development is proposed, and a number of research approaches to address periodization are discussed.
Ronnie Lidor, Gershon Tenenbaum, Gal Ziv, and Vladimir Issurin
Clayton Kuklick, Stephen Harvey, and Roch King
formation of CS’ habitus and the durability of this habitus across the different temporal phases of their socialization, particularly within UCDC. Bourdieu’s social theory of practice ( 1977 , 1990 ) was then used to interrogate how habitus is influenced by cultural (e.g., knowledge, skills, educational
Lucy V. Piggott and Jordan J.K. Matthews
the complex gender power relations that exist within English sport organizations. Theoretical Framework Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of practice, and particularly his concept of the field, informs our analyses of the gendered administrative and governance structures and rules of England Golf and the LTA
Shannon Kerwin, Joanne MacLean, and Dina Bell-Laroche
The theory of practicing values may provide valuable insight into the role of organizational values in sport organizations. This is particularly relevant in the nonprofit sport sector where managers operate with limited budgets and organizations may subscribe to specific ethical-social values related to organizational performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of organizational values on the performance of nonprofit sport organizations and the possible mediating effect of employing a management-by-values approach. Online questionnaires were collected from 24 national sport organizations, with a total sample of 103 participants. Results indicate management by values fully mediates the influence of ethical-social organizational values on organizational performance. These results are explained using the theory of practicing values, which emphasizes the need to intentionally manage values within sport organizations. Implications for research and practice are presented.
Anders Lindelof, Claus Vinther Nielsen, and Birthe D. Pedersen
Individuals’ attitude toward physical activity may contribute to their willingness to participate in such behavior. This study qualitatively and longitudinally explored obese adolescents’ attitudes to physical activity.
Fifteen obese adolescents were recruited at a weight loss camp. Participants were followed for 2.5 years with 3 yearly rounds of participant observations and interviews. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach.
Four categories were identified: 1) throughout the study participants became more sedentary as they de-selected activities like bike riding; 2) participants did not perceive their increasing inactive lifestyle as hindering weight loss as they consider such activities as futile compared with vigorously hard exercise; 3) participants frequently failed to participate in hard exercise, like going to the gym; and 4) participants had a genuine antipathy against being physical active.
Among others, a reason why obese adolescents fail to live an active life is that they find limited pleasure in such behavior. It is argued that obese adolescents need a positive attitude toward physical activity if they are to be more active. With reference to Bourdieu’s theory of practice, it is hypothesized that such attitude needs to be learned through everyday life by experiencing joy and meaning by being physical active.
Loïc J.D. Wacquant
Drawing on a 3-year ethnography and participant observation study of a ghetto gym in Chicago, this article purports to (a) de-exoticize the subproletarian bodily craft of boxing by uncovering its embedded social logic and meaning, and (b) contribute to a theory of practice that escapes the false antinomies associated with rational choice and normative models of action. The first part explores the peculiar relation of symbiotic opposition that ties the boxing gym to its proximate social matrix of the black ghetto and to the masculine street culture from which it draws its sustenance and shelters its members. The second part treats boxing as a Durkheimian “social art” whose mastery involves an intensive, ascetic, and strictly regulated manipulation of the body designed to inculcate through direct embodiment the set of corporeal, visual, and mental schemata immanent to pugilistic practice. The social production of the pugilistic habitus as embodied practical reason thus suggests the need to place the socialized lived body at the center of the analysis of social action.
Dana Maslovat, Shannon S.D. Bredin, Romeo Chua, and Ian M. Franks
A major component of a dynamical paradigm involves a “scanning” procedure in an attempt to determine an individual’s intrinsic coordination tendencies before learning, as well as subsequent changes in the coordination landscape after practice. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate two methods of the scanning procedure. Scans were performed before and after 75 trials of a 90° bimanual-coordination pattern and were compared with early and late acquisition trials. Four groups of participants performed scanning and acquisition trials using a combination of either concurrent visual feedback in the form of Lissajous figures, paced by an auditory metronome, or visual metronomes in the form of flashing stimuli. Analyses revealed that all groups improved performance of the 90° pattern with practice. As predicted by the theory of practice specificity, scanning via the same method as acquisition appears to be valid. Scanning via Lissajous figures when the acquisition procedure was flashing squares was also found to be valid, but not the opposite condition. Reasons for this unidirectional transfer are given with these results suggesting that the sensitivity of a given scanning method might be influenced by the method of acquiring the coordination pattern.
Mark Partington, Jimmy O’Gorman, Kenny Greenough, and Ed Cope
serve others, who are considered clients” (p. 6). All people operate in practice based on a number of different theories and, whether conscious of it or not, they control their outcomes in various situations. Argyris and Schön ( 1974 ) highlighted how a theory of practice has interconnected theories of
Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin
: Sage . Collis , J. , & Hussey , R. ( 2013 ). Business research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students . Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan . Connell , R.W. ( 1982 ). Class, patriarchy, and Sartre’s theory of practice . Theory and Society, 11 , 305 – 320 . doi:10
Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch, and James F. Sallis
: New York University Press ; 2015 . 10.18574/nyu/9780814725498.001.0001 34. Bourdieu P . Outline of a Theory of Practice . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ; 2003 . 35. Bronfenbrenner U . The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments in Nature and Design . Cambridge : Harvard