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Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt and Ian Maynard

The purpose of this study was to explore how sport and exercise psychologists working in sport understand and use motivational interviewing (MI). Eleven practitioners participated in semistructured interviews, and inductive thematic analysis identified themes linked to explicit use of MI, such as building engagement and exploring ambivalence to change; the value of MI, such as enhancing the relationship, rolling with resistance and integrating with other approaches; and barriers to the implementation of MI in sport psychology, such as a limited evidence-base in sport. Findings also indicated considerable implicit use of MI by participants, including taking an athlete-centered approach, supporting athlete autonomy, reflective listening, demonstrating accurate empathy, and taking a nonprescriptive, guiding role. This counseling style appears to have several tenets to enhance current practice in sport psychology, not least the enhancement of therapeutic alliance.

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Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran and Joanne Butt

delivered in conversations with athletes. For example, the specific communication strategies used (and not used), specific models and tools implemented, conscious processes in cultivating a therapeutic alliance, recognition of athlete readiness for an intervention, structures that guide practitioner

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

rationale for Trent’s decision to communicate this with his teammates and coaching staff without the knowledge of the clinician is unknown. There are many reasons why he may have acted in this manner. The most concerning, from a psychological therapeutic alliance perspective, is the potential belief that

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Roy David Samuel

support, with the second-season referees experiencing a significantly longer process than the other 2 referees (see Table  1 ). With all 4 referees, I had a strong therapeutic alliance (see Samuel & Tenenbaum, 2011b ), as we had previously met in various professional settings. Still, the ability to reach

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

the MDTT, and choosing activities that are positively engaging ( Plateau, Arcelus, McDermott, & Meyer, 2015 ). Identify agreed upon parameters for treatment and return to play and avoid rushing to complete treatment or re-establish full training and competition. Prioritize the therapeutic alliance

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Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas and Keith A. Kaufman

skill, we encourage future research to include a measure of the therapeutic alliance or group cohesion, especially when comparing MSPE to other intervention programs. Finally, outcomes might be enhanced by increasing coach involvement, so that coaches could participate in MSPE with their athletes and

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Shelby J. Martin and Timothy Anderson

therapeutic alliance, which has been shown to increase patient self-disclosure and engagement in therapy ( Norcross & Wampold, 2011 ), may help facilitate this conversation and decrease treatment dropout among athletes. By working to destigmatize eating disorders and help-seeking for EP on an individual, team

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Nicole T. Gabana, Aaron D’Addario, Matteo Luzzeri, Stinne Soendergaard and Y. Joel Wong

related to the athlete’s disposition and worldview (e.g., having a propensity toward gratitude; attributing success to a Creator; directing appreciation toward God). Paying due attention to these associations may enhance the therapeutic alliance and provide clinicians with starting points for discussion