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Impairment of Thermoregulation and Performance via Mild Dehydration in Ice Hockey Goaltenders

Devin G. McCarthy, Kate A. Wickham, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Danielle L. Nyman, Shane Ferth, Jamie M. Pereira, Dennis J. Larson, Jamie F. Burr, and Lawrence L. Spriet

losing 1.94% BM in skaters. 9 The high sweat rates and apparent physiological demands of ice hockey goaltenders suggest that mild DEH may impair performance, but this has not been examined. This study examined the effects of mild DEH (∼2% BM loss) on on-ice thermoregulation, HR, fatigue, and performance

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A High-Intensity Warm-Up Increases Thermal Strain But Does Not Affect Repeated Sprint Performance in Athletes With a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

Thomas J. O’Brien, Simon J. Briley, Barry S. Mason, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

intensity of INT was based on the rationale that a high-intensity WU improves performance in AB athletes. 12 This finding was only partly replicated in the studied cohort of WR players. In addition to impaired thermoregulation, the reduced active muscle mass 4 and the associated increase in muscle

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The Effect of Upper-Body Positioning on the Aerodynamic–Physiological Economy of Time-Trial Cycling

Steve H. Faulkner and Philippa Jobling

thermoregulatory effects during simulated TT cycling. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between hip angle, thermoregulation, economy, and performance. A secondary aim was to develop a unit of measurement that is sensitive to changes in rider position with respect to their

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Enhancement of Exercise Capacity in the Heat With Repeated Menthol-Spray Application

Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic, and Stuart Goodall

provide a greater benefit to thermal perception thereby driving behavioral thermoregulation. Our data suggest that only TS was significantly improved although TC did alter subjectively in the hypothesized direction. The performance change through perceptual mechanisms did not manifest itself through

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High Thermoregulatory Strain During Competitive Paratriathlon Racing in the Heat

Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

finite literature concerning thermoregulation in Paralympic sport has centered on athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) due to their high propensity for thermal strain caused by impaired autonomic function and therefore sudomotor and vasomotor control. 2 Research has characterized the

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Influence of Beverage Temperature on Exercise Performance in the Heat: A Systematic Review

Catriona A. Burdon, Helen T. O’Connor, Janelle A. Gifford, and Susan M. Shirreffs


Increased core temperature (Tc), impaired cardiovascular function, and dehydration contribute to fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat. Although many studies have examined mechanisms addressing these factors, few have investigated the effect of cold beverage temperature on thermoregulation and exercise performance in the heat.


Citations from MEDLINE (Ovid), Sport Discus (EBSCOhost), AUSPORT and AusportMed (Informit), Web of Science, and SCOPUS were identified from the earliest record until September 2008 using the search terms drink temperature, beverage temperature, fluid temperature, water temperature, and cold fluid combined with body temperature and thermoregulation. To be included, studies needed to assess core or rectal temperature during exercise in moderate or hot environmental conditions. After quality rating was completed by two reviewers, the difference in mean Tc and exercise performance was calculated.


Ten studies meeting search inclusion criteria were available for analysis. Three were excluded because sufficient detail or statistical data were not reported. A meta-analysis was not performed because the studies were deemed too different to group. Three of the remaining 7 studies found modulated Tc with cold beverage consumption, and from the 4 that conducted exercise performance tests, performance improved by 10% with cold fluids.


Cold fluid may attenuate Tc rise and improve exercise performance in the heat; however, study findings are mixed. Research using well-trained athletes and fluid-ingestion protocols replicating competition scenarios is required. Potential sensory effects of cold fluid in maintaining motivation also need to be assessed as a mechanism underpinning improved performance.

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Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Thermoregulation and Metabolism during Exercise in the Heat

M.J. Anderson, J.D. Cotter, A.P. Garnham, D.J. Casley, and M.A. Febbraio

This study examined the effect of glycerol ingestion on fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation, and metabolism during rest and exercise. Six endurance-trained men ingested either 1 g glycerol in 20 ml H2O · kg−1 body weight (bw) (GLY) or 20 ml H2O · kg−1 bw (CON) in a randomized double-blind fashion, 120 min prior to undertaking 90 min of steady state cycle exercise (SS) at 98% of lactate threshold in dry heat (35 °C, 30% RH), with ingestion of CHO-electrolyte beverage (6% CHO) at 15-min intervals. A 15-min cycle, where performance was quantified in kJ, followed (PC). Pre-exercise urine volume was lower in GLY than CON (1119 ± 97 vs. 1503 ± 146 ml · 120 min−1; p < .05). Heart rate was lower (p < .05) throughout SS in GLY, while forearm blood flow was higher (17.1 ± 1.5 vs. 13.7 ± 3.0 ml · 100 g tissue · min−1; < .05) and rectal temperature lower (38.7 ± 0.1 vs. 39.1 ± 0.1 °C; p < .05) in GLY late in SS. Despite these changes, skin and muscle temperatures and circulating catecholamines were not different between trials. Accordingly, no differences were observed in muscle glycogenolysis, lactate accumulation, adenine nucleotide, and phosphocreatine degradation or inosine 5-monophosphate accumulation when comparing GLY with CON. Of note, the work performed during PC was 5% greater in GLY (252 ± 10 vs. 240 ± 9 kJ;p < .05). These results demonstrate that glycerol, when ingested with a bolus of water 2 hours prior to exercise, results in fluid retention, which is capable of reducing cardiovascular strain and enhancing thermoregulation. Furthermore, this practice increases exercise performance in the heat by mechanisms other than alterations in muscle metabolism.

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Effect of Individual Environmental Heat-Stress Variables on Training and Recovery in Professional Team Sport

Fergus K. O’Connor, Steven E. Stern, Thomas M. Doering, Geoffrey M. Minett, Peter R. Reaburn, Jonathan D. Bartlett, and Vernon G. Coffey

reduce physical performance in hot conditions. The vast majority of previous research on thermoregulation during exercise in hot environments has focused on the endurance athlete, and there is a paucity of available data examining the effect of exercise in the heat on the team-sport athlete. 6 Some

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Core Temperature and Sweating in Men and Women During a 15-km Race in Cool Conditions

Coen C.W.G. Bongers, Dominique S.M. ten Haaf, Nicholas Ravanelli, Thijs M.H. Eijsvogels, and Maria T.E. Hopman

exercise in water and air . Acta Physiol Scand . 1976 ; 98 ( 4 ): 500 – 508 . PubMed ID: 998300 doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1976.tb10342.x 998300 18. Havenith G . Individualized model of human thermoregulation for the simulation of heat stress response . J Appl Physiol . 2001 ; 90 ( 5 ): 1943 – 1954

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Combining Heat and Altitude Training to Enhance Temperate, Sea-Level Performance

Olivier Girard, Peter Peeling, Sébastien Racinais, and Julien D. Périard

. Périard JD , Eijsvogels T , Daanen H . Exercise under heat stress: thermoregulation, hydration, performance implications and mitigation strategies . Physiol Rev . 2021 ; 101 ( 4 ): 1873 – 1979 . doi: 10.1152/physrev.00038.2020 6. Minson CT , Cotter JD . Crosstalk proposal: heat