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Philip Furley and Geoffrey Schweizer

The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents’ nonverbal behavior influence athletes’ confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes’ nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants’ confidence estimations were influenced by opponents’ score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes’ confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes’ confidence.

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Philip Furley and Geoffrey Schweizer

The goal of the present paper was to investigate whether soccer referees’ nonverbal behavior (NVB) differed based on the difficulty of their decisions and whether perceivers could detect these systematic variations. On the one hand, communicating confidence via NVB is emphasized in referee training. On the other hand, it seems feasible from a theoretical point of view that particularly following relatively difficult decisions referees have problems controlling their NVB. We conducted three experiments to investigate this question. Experiment 1 (N = 40) and Experiment 2 (N = 60) provided evidence that perceivers regard referees’ NVB as less confident following ambiguous decisions as compared with following unambiguous decisions. Experiment 3 (N = 58) suggested that perceivers were more likely to debate with the referee when referees nonverbally communicated less confidence. We discuss consequences for referee training.

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Philip Furley, Fanny Thrien, Johannes Klinge and Jannik Dörr

loss: Estimating who’s leading or trailing from nonverbal cues in sports . Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38, 13 – 29 . doi:10.1007/s10919-013-0168-7 10.1007/s10919-013-0168-7 Furley , P. , & Schweizer , G. ( 2016a ). In a flash: Thin slice judgment accuracy of leading and trailing in sports

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Philip D. Imholte, Jedediah E. Blanton and Michelle M. McAlarnen

Ambady , N. , & Rosenthal , R. ( 1993 ). Half a minute: Predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64 ( 3 ), 431 – 441 . doi:10.1037/0022-3514.64.3.431 10.1037/0022-3514.64.3.431 Avolio , B