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John G.H. Dunn and A. Brian Nielsen

To fully understand why athletes experience anxiety in specific competitive situations, the psychological dimensions upon which threat perceptions are based must also be understood. No studies to date have been designed primarily to facilitate direct cross-sport comparisons of the constructs. The purposes of this study were (a) to identify the psychological dimensions upon which athletes in ice hockey and soccer base threat perceptions towards specific anxiety-inducing game situations, and (b) to determine whether athletes from these sports held similar threat perceptions towards parallel cross-sport situations. Seventy-one athletes rated the degree of similarity of threat perceptions across 15 sport-specific game situations. A multidimensional scaling analysis revealed similar three-dimensional solutions for each sport. However, certain distinct between-sport differences were also observed. Furthermore, the perceptions of threat towards certain situations were found to be multidimensional. The implications these findings have for competitive-anxiety research are discussed.

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Rebecca Lewthwaite

Relationships between goal related threat appraisal and competitive trait anxiety were examined in a field study with 102 9- to 15-year-old male soccer players. Questionnaires assessed (a) the frequency and intensity of somatic and cognitive symptoms of competitive trait anxiety, (b) the personal importance of various goals in youth sports, (c) children's perceptions of the extent to which these goals were endangered through sport participation, and (d) self-esteem. Correlational analyses indicated significant but weak relationships between a summary appraisal of threat to important goals and the frequency of somatic and cognitive competitive trait anxiety symptoms, and a stronger relationship between summary threat and competitive trait anxiety intensity. Greater perceived threat to effort/mastery and competitive achievement goals was reported by boys with higher, rather than lower, competitive trait anxiety. Within the sample, however, a cluster analysis revealed considerable individual variation in the degree of threat perceived with respect to each of four identified goals.

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John G.H. Dunn

Traditionally, nomothetic and idiographic methodologies have been viewed as antithetical. This dichotomous perspective has caused many researchers to advocate the benefits associated with only one of the two approaches. Such a biased view hinders the acquisition of knowledge in the sport psychology field because the potential benefits that the nonfavored approach can offer are frequently overlooked. The present study demonstrates how research in sport psychology can be enhanced by combining nomothetic and idiographic procedures. This combined approach provides the researcher with the opportunity to validate nomothetic principles at the individual level, while simultaneously generating nomothetic hypotheses from idiographic analyses. To illustrate these points, a nomothetic profile of situational threat perceptions based upon the responses of 46 ice hockey players (reported by Dunn & Nielsen, 1993) is compared with the perceptual profiles of three individual ice hockey players. The comparisons show many unique perceptual differences between the group and individual solutions.

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Athletes' Achievement Goals and Beliefs Concerning Success in Tennis Maria Newton * Joan L. Duda 12 1993 15 4 437 448 10.1123/jsep.15.4.437 A Between-Sport Comparison of Situational Threat Perceptions in Ice Hockey and Soccer John G.H. Dunn * A. Brian Nielsen 12 1993 15 4 449 465 10.1123/jsep.15

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Waite * Bruce Gansneder * Robert J. Robert * 9 1990 12 3 264 279 10.1123/jsep.12.3.264 Threat Perception in Competitive Trait Anxiety: The Endangerment of Important Goals Rebecca Lewthwaite * 9 1990 12 3 280 300 10.1123/jsep.12.3.280 Group Cohesion and Collective Efficacy of Volleyball Teams Kevin

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Emily M. Hartley, Matthew C. Hoch and Robert J. Cramer

(Table  1 ). 14 The HBM constructs are categorized by two main aspects which are threat perception and behavioral evaluation. Within the threat perception aspect, perceived susceptibility and perceived severity are considered. Behavioral evaluation encompasses the potential benefits and barriers of

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James Dimmock, David Simich, Timothy Budden, Leslie Podlog, Mark Beauchamp and Ben Jackson

perceptions of the expertise of the exercise provider. Main Analyses A one-way MANOVA was performed for the main analyses, with message condition as the independent variable and participants’ intrinsic motivation-related expectations, threat perceptions, anger perceptions, and message elaboration as dependent

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Max Pietrzak and Niels B.J. Vollaard

Notwithstanding the aforementioned potential role of the SNS modulating stretch tolerance through neuronal desensitization, significantly higher SNRS ratings in session 2 compared to session 1 for most of the outcome measures could be due to autonomic modulation of stretch tolerance through attenuation of ‘threat

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Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet and Armand Chatard

warrant generalization to other populations. Therefore, the present findings should be replicated with a larger and a more diverse sample. Aside from sample-related limitations, concerns may be raised because a manipulation check of threat perception was not included. This choice was made with regard to