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Yonghwan Chang, Vicki Schull, and Lisa A. Kihl

effects of these stereotypes on women’s involvement in sports and sports viewership should not be understated. Research on stereotype threat (e.g.,  Stone, 2002 ) suggests that the activation of negative stereotypes is likely to lead to a decrease in interest ( Farrell et al., 2011 ) and performance

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Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny

achievement settings is called stereotype threat (ST). Since the seminal paper by Steele and Aronson ( 1995 ), the detrimental ST effect has been demonstrated in numerous empirical studies, many of which are cited throughout this paper, using cognitive or motor performance tasks. The effect of ST is insidious

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Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet, and Armand Chatard

in other, nonupsetting situations? There are reasons to believe so, and the present study examined this intriguing possibility. More precisely, building on the fight-or-flight model and social self-preservation theory, the aim of the current experiment was to examine whether evaluative threat in a

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Elizabeth B. Delia

identification may include extreme behaviors such as fan aggression or derogating outgroup members ( Branscombe & Wann, 1992 ), or negatively influencing one’s sense of self via identity threat ( Doyle, Lock, Funk, Filo, & McDonald, 2017 ; Wann, 2006 ). Interestingly, we know that while fans often celebrate a

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Sarah B. Williams, Elizabeth A. Taylor, T. Christopher Greenwell, and Brigitte M. Burpo

for Sport Management, 2017 ). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the experiences of gender microaggressions and stereotype threat by gender in sport management doctoral students. Literature Review Doctoral Programs and the Student Experience Although sport

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Keegan Dalal, Lindee Declercq, Megan C. Piché, Craig G. Hyatt, and Michael L. Naraine

the threats, specifically, that Blue Jays were no longer Canada’s only team. Since 2004, when the Expos relocated to Washington, the Blue Jays had become committed to marketing themselves as “Canada’s team.” This emphasis was so big that, in 2013, the Blue Jays wore hats with just a maple leaf, the

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Eleanor Quested, Jos A. Bosch, Victoria E. Burns, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, and Joan L. Duda

Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) posits basic psychological need satisfaction (BPNS) as essential for optimal functioning and health. Grounded in this framework, the current study examined the role of BPNS in dancers’ cognitive appraisals and hormonal and emotional responses to performance stress. Dancers reported their degree of BPNS 1 month before a solo performance. Threat and challenge appraisals of the solo were recorded 2 hr before the performance. Salivary cortisol and anxiety were measured 15 min before, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postperformance. Higher BPNS was associated with lower cortisol responses and anxiety intensity. Challenge appraisals mediated the association between BPNS and cortisol. Threat appraisals mediated the BPNS–anxiety intensity relationship. These findings point to the potential importance of performers’ BPNS for optimal emotional and hormonal homeostasis in performance conditions.

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Sian L. Beilock and Allen R. McConnell

Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The causal mechanisms of stereotype threat in sport are examined, followed by a discussion of why the cognitive processes thought to govern negative stereotype-induced performance decrements in academic and cognitively based tasks (e.g., GRE or SAT tests) may not unequivocally extend to sport skills. Finally, factors that should moderate the impact of stereotype threat in sport are outlined. Because stereotype threat has important consequences for athletics (e.g., impairing athletic performance, maintaining the underrepresentation of minority athletes in certain sports), it is a phenomenon that deserves greater attention in sport and exercise psychology research.

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Dae Hee Kwak and Sean Pradhan

reflected failure [CORFing]; Wann & Branscombe, 1990 ; basking in reflected failure; Campbell, Aiken, & Kent, 2004 ) that sport fans may use when their favorite team loses. While feeling negative emotions and experiencing identity threat as a result of a loss by one’s favorite team has been well

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Lee J. Moore, Mark R. Wilson, Samuel J. Vine, Adam H. Coussens, and Paul Freeman

The present research examined the immediate impact of challenge and threat states on golf performance in both real competition and a laboratory-based task. In Study 1, 199 experienced golfers reported their evaluations of competition demands and personal coping resources before a golf competition. Evaluating the competition as a challenge (i.e., sufficient resources to cope with demands) was associated with superior performance. In Study 2, 60 experienced golfers randomly received challenge or threat manipulation instructions and then performed a competitive golf-putting task. Challenge and threat states were successfully manipulated and the challenge group outperformed the threat group. Furthermore, the challenge group reported less anxiety, more facilitative interpretations of anxiety, less conscious processing, and displayed longer quiet eye durations. However, these variables failed to mediate the group–performance relationship. These studies demonstrate the importance of considering preperformance psychophysiological states when examining the influence of competitive pressure on motor performance.