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Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Dan Benardot, and Marian N. Dill

This study examines the degree of under-reporting of energy intake by elite, female gymnasts, and the impact this predicted under-reporting has on associated macro and micro nutrient intake. Twenty-eight female U.S. national team artistic gymnasts participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records, and the degree of under-reporting was predicted from the ratio of reported energy intake (EI) to predicted basal metabolic rate (BMRestd), using the standards described by Goldberg et al. (10). Sixty-one percent of the subjects had an EI/BMRestd ratio of < 1.44, and were classified as under-reporters. The under-reporters had higher BMIs and percent body fat, and lower reported total energy intakes than the adequate energy reporters. Additionally, under-reporting of energy intake had a significant impact on reported micro nutrient intake. The under-reporting of energy intake seen in these subjects has an impact on the reported intake of macro and micro nutrients that can influence the interpretation of the nutritional status of these athletes and the strategy for nutrition intervention. Therefore, when assessing dietary intakes of elite gymnasts, some means of determining the accuracy of the reported energy and nutrient intake should be employed to more accurately identify the true nutritional problems experienced by these elite athletes.

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David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi, and Andrew Simonson

COSMED CPET metabolic device (COSMED, Rome, Italy). Body composition was measured with a Bod Pod body composition analyzer (Life Measurement, Concord, CA). Demographic and training histories were acquired with questionnaires. Three-day food records were supplied with thorough instructions. Supplements (2

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer, and Kelly Pritchett

Log To ensure consistent food intake across trials, participants were asked to record dietary intakes for 24 h prior to each testing session. They were educated on the protocol for completing a three-day food record and asked to record dietary intake during the two trials. Participants were instructed

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue, and Robert Arnot

Three-day food records did not show any significant differences in macro- and micro-nutrient intake during the 3-day period prior to the 50-km cycling time trials under coffee and placebo conditions (data not shown). Energy intakes were 8.29–0.76 MJ/day and 8.64–0.54 MJ/day, with carbohydrate

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue, and Jennifer E. McBride

.3 ± 7.6 vs. 56.5 ± 10.3 %VO 2max , p  = .348). Other metabolic factors including heart rate, ventilation, and the rating of perceived exertion were similar between T-LPP and placebo trials (all p s > .05; data not shown). Three-day food records did not show any significant differences in macro- and

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker, and Matthew D. Vukovich

. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (before training) and at 3 and 6 months. Records were analyzed with Food Processor (v. 8.1; ESHA Research, Salem, OR) by the same investigator every time. The protein supplement (Myoplex; EAS, Inc., Golden, CO) contained 280 kcal, 42 g protein, 21 g