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Carol A. Boliek, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Lauren Pedersen, Julia R. Esch, and Jacqueline Cummine

excursions and alveolar pressures associated with tasks, including VC maneuvers, maximum duration sustained phonation, and expiratory resistance loading. One way to manipulate inspiratory and expiratory pressures is to employ some form of expiratory resistance loading or expiratory threshold loading (ETL) at

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Mark Watsford and Aron Murphy

This research examined the effects of respiratory-muscle (RM) training on RM function and exercise performance in older women. Twenty-six women (60–69 yr of age) were assessed for spirometry, RM strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure), inspiratory-muscle endurance, and walking performance to a perceived exertion rating of “hard.” They were randomly allocated to a threshold RM training group (RMT) or a nonexercising control group (CON) for 8 wk. After training, the 22% (inspiratory) and 30% (expiratory) improvements in RM strength in the RMT group were significantly higher than in the CON group (p < .05). The RMT group also displayed several significant performance improvements, including improved within-group treadmill performance time (12%) and reductions in submaximal heart rate (5%), percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation (16%), and perceived exertion for breathing (8%). RM training appears to improve RM function in older women. Furthermore, these improvements appear to be related to improved submaximal exercise performance.

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Toshiyuki Ohya, Kenta Kusanagi, Jun Koizumi, Ryosuke Ando, Keisho Katayama, and Yasuhiro Suzuki

Ltd, Birmingham, UK) with an inspiratory pressure threshold load equivalent to 50% MIP in weeks 1 and 2 for both the HI and MOD groups for familiarization. From weeks 3 to 6, an inspiratory pressure threshold load equivalent to 75% MIP in the HI group or 50% MIP in the MOD group was applied. Based on

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Mariana B. Pinto, Patrícia M. Bock, Andressa S.O. Schein, Juliana Portes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, and Beatriz D. Schaan

progressive inspiratory threshold loading. Participants breathed continuously through a mouthpiece connected to an inspiratory muscle trainer (POWERbreathe ® ) with an initial load of 50% MIP. Increments of 10% MIP were added every 3 min until the patient could not continue the task despite strong

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Francesco V. Ferraro, James P. Gavin, Thomas W. Wainwright, and Alison K. McConnell

, using a mechanical pressure threshold loading device (POWERbreathe Plus; POWERbreathe ® International Ltd., Southam, United Kingdom), following an established training protocol known to improve inspiratory muscle function. This involved 30 breaths, twice daily: once in the morning (between 7:00 and 12

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Alesha Reed, Jacqueline Cummine, Neesha Bhat, Shivraj Jhala, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, and Carol A. Boliek

expiratory threshold loading . Motor Control, 23 ( 1 ), 13 – 33 . PubMed ID: 29902955 doi:10.1123/mc.2016-0055 10.1123/mc.2016-0055 Boonstra , T.W. , & Breakspear , M. ( 2012 ). Neural mechanisms of intermuscular coherence: Implications for the rectification of surface electromyography . Journal of

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Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi, and Popi Sotiriadou

each of the items, retaining the items with higher communalities. In addition, the percentage of the total item variance, that is, explained was taken into account ( Hinkin, 1995 ). Items with extreme low loadings were excluded; items with threshold loadings were only excluded if it was judged that