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David F. Stodden, Glenn S. Fleisig, Scott P. McLean, Stephen L. Lyman and James R. Andrews

Generating consistent maximum ball velocity is an important factor for a baseball pitcher’s success. While previous investigations have focused on the role of the upper and lower extremities, little attention has been given to the trunk. In this study it was hypothesized that variations in pelvis and upper torso kinematics within individual pitchers would be significantly associated with variations in pitched ball velocity. Nineteen elite baseball pitchers were analyzed using 3-D high-speed motion analysis. For inclusion in this study, each pitcher demonstrated a variation in ball velocity of at least 1.8 m/s (range: 1.8–3.5 m/s) during his 10 fastball pitch trials. A mixed-model analysis was used to determine the relationship between 12 pelvis and upper torso kinematic variables and pitched ball velocity. Results indicated that five variables were associated with variations in ball velocity within individual pitchers: pelvis orientation at maximum external rotation of the throwing shoulder (p = .026), pelvis orientation at ball release (p = .044), upper torso orientation at maximum external rotation of the throwing shoulder (p = .007), average pelvis velocity during arm cocking (p = .024), and average upper torso velocity during arm acceleration (p = .035). As ball velocity increased, pitchers showed an increase in pelvis orientation and upper torso orientation at the instant of maximal external rotation of the throwing shoulder. In addition, average pelvis velocity during arm cocking and average upper torso velocity during arm acceleration increased as ball velocity increased. From a practical perspective, the athlete should be coached to strive for proper trunk rotation during arm cocking as well as strength and flexibility in order to generate angular velocity within the trunk for maximum ball velocity.

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Shohei Shibata, Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka and Senshi Fukashiro

An overarm throw is a complex multijoint limb movement. Of arm segments, fingers are the only and final segments that contact the ball. Some previous studies have investigated finger kinematics ( Hore & Watts, 2011 ; Hore, Watts, & Tweed, 1996 ). Hore, Watts, and Tweed ( 1996 ) reported that

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Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason and Christopher J. Nightingale

that girls performed OCS (catching, kicking, and throwing) with less proficiency than did boys. Also noteworthy is a study of Australian children, in which Barnett et al. ( 2010 ) found that girls performed poorly relative to boys in throwing, catching, and kicking. More recently, Petranek and Barton

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Mark G.L. Sayers and Stephen Bishop

Upper body power is a key component for success in many sports. Athletes who can generate high power output during throwing, catching, attacking, or defending activities are often capable of superior performance. 1 A common method for assessing upper body power has been via a bench press throw. 1

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David F. Stodden, Glenn S. Fleisig, Scott P. McLean and James R. Andrews

To reach the level of elite, most baseball pitchers need to consistently produce high ball velocity but avoid high joint loads at the shoulder and elbow that may lead to injury. This study examined the relationship between fastball velocity and variations in throwing mechanics within 19 baseball pitchers who were analyzed via 3-D high-speed motion analysis. Inclusion in the study required each one to demonstrate a variation in velocity of at least 1.8 m/s (range 1.8–3.5 m/s) during 6 to 10 fastball pitch trials. Three mixed model analyses were performed to assess the independent effects of 7 kinetic, 11 temporal, and 12 kinematic parameters on pitched ball velocity. Results indicated that elbow flexion torque, shoulder proximal force, and elbow proximal force were the only three kinetic parameters significantly associated with increased ball velocity. Two temporal parameters (increased time to max shoulder horizontal adduction and decreased time to max shoulder internal rotation) and three kinematic parameters (decreased shoulder horizontal adduction at foot contact, decreased shoulder abduction during acceleration, and increased trunk tilt forward at release) were significantly related to increased ball velocity. These results point to variations in an individual's throwing mechanics that relate to pitched ball velocity, and also suggest that pitchers should focus on consistent mechanics to produce consistently high fastball velocities. In addition, pitchers should strengthen shoulder and elbow musculature that resist distraction as well as improve trunk strength and flexibility to maximize pitching velocity and help prevent injury.

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Jerraco L. Johnson, Peter A. Hastie, Mary E. Rudisill and Danielle Wadsworth

& Isaacs, 2017 ). FMS are comprised of both locomotor (i.e., actions that move the body through space) and object control skills (i.e., require the use of hands and feet to manipulate objects ( Haywood & Getchell, 2020 ). Examples of these skills include running, jumping, throwing, and kicking. It is

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Jerraco L. Johnson, Mary E. Rudisill, Peter A. Hastie and Julia Sassi

classified as either locomotor skills or object control skills. Locomotor skills are actions that move the body through space (e.g., running and jumping), while object control skills require the use of hands and feet to manipulate objects (e.g., throwing and kicking) ( Haywood & Getchell, 2014 ). It is

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Sergio L. Molina and David F. Stodden

). Specifically, the speed-accuracy trade-off describes an inverse linear relationship between the speed of a movement and the accuracy of that movement. However, when examining the speed-accuracy trade-off in multijoint ballistic skills (e.g., throwing, kicking, and jumping), recent research does not support the

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Corbin A. Hedt, S. Brett Holland, Bradley S. Lambert, Joshua D. Harris and Patrick C. McCulloch

Baseball and other sports involving overhead throwing continue to be popular among all age groups and cultures. However, there are numerous injuries associated with the throwing athlete every year. 1 , 2 In major league baseball, over 50% of injuries occur in the upper-extremity, 2 and the

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Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

sport of softball itself is not well studied, the main movement performed is throwing, which is well defined in the baseball literature. 2 – 5 Throwing is a kinetic chain activity, requiring the body to act as coordinated, independent links connected in series. 2 To execute a throw, one must coordinate