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Meaghan E. Maddigan, David G. Behm and Glen R. Belfry

Context:

High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve muscle power and endurance, as well as aerobic power.

Objective:

To assess the effects of HIIT that utilizes resistive elastic bands to improve overhand throwing velocity.

Participants:

Healthy female volunteers (n = 13) ranging in age from 18–29 years.

Interventions:

Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group that exercised 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Each training session involved performance of 5 sets of 20 throwing motions against elastic band resistance, which was performed by both extremities.

Main Outcome Measures:

Maximal oxygen consumption was measured during performance of a graded exercise test that utilized an upper extremity cycle ergometer. A radar gun was used to assess peak throwing velocity and the extent to which throwing velocity was sustained during performance of a 20-throw endurance test.

Results:

After completing the training, the experimental group exhibited faster peak throwing velocity (61.6 ± 6.6 km/hr to 63.2 ± 8.6 km/hr) and a reduced fatigue index (1.18 ± 0.16 to 1.01 ± 0.02). Training also resulted in a 14% improvement in maximum oxygen consumption (1.40 ± 0.46 L/min to 1.60 ± 0.49 L/ min) and longer time to fatigue (9.99 ± 1.84 min to 11.43 ± 2.29 min).

Conclusion:

The high-intensity interval training program was effective for improvement of overhand throwing performance.

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Mário C. Marques, Roland van den Tillaar, Jason D. Vescovi and Juan José González-Badillo

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball-throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw and dynamic strength, power, and bar velocity during a concentric-only bench-press exercise in team-handball players.

Methods:

Fourteen elite senior male team-handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric-only bench-press test with 26, 36, and 46 kg, as well as having 1-repetition-maximum (1-RMBP) strength determined. Ball-throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun.

Results:

Ball-throwing velocity was related to the absolute load lifted during the 1-RMBP (r = .637, P = .014), peak power using 36 kg (r = .586, P = .028) and 46 kg (r = .582, P = .029), and peak bar velocity using 26 kg (r = .563, P = .036) and 36 kg (r = .625, P = .017).

Conclusions:

The results indicate that throwing velocity of elite team-handball players is related to maximal dynamic strength, peak power, and peak bar velocity. Thus, a training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team-handball players should include exercises that are aimed at increasing both strength and power in the upper body.

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Roland van den Tillaar and Mário C. Marques

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to determine whether two throwing programs, based upon velocity or resistance with the same workload, would enhance soccer overhead throwing velocity.

Methods:

Sports science students (n = 64, age 21.1 ± 2.1 y, mass 71.1 ± 11 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.09 m; mean ± SD) divided into two groups matched on performance, participated in the study. The resistance-training group trained overhead throwing with a 5-kg medicine ball for two sets of 8 reps per session, whereas a velocity training group threw four sets of 16 reps with a regular soccer ball. These training programs were matched on workload. Throwing performance with a soccer ball and a 5-kg medicine ball were tested before and after a training period of 6 wk with two sessions per week.

Results:

Both groups significantly increased the throwing velocity with the soccer ball (resistance-training group: 3.2% [1.0–5.5%)]; P = .003 and velocity-training group: 5.1% [2.6–7.7%]; P < .001), whereas no substantial changes were found for throwing with the 5-kg medicine ball after the training period. No substantial differences between the groups were found, which indicates that both forms of training increased the throwing velocity.

Conclusions:

It is concluded that both velocity and resistance throwing training programs after a short period of training with the same workload can increase throwing velocity and that workload is of importance in designing training programs and comparing them with each other.

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Jerraco L. Johnson, Mary E. Rudisill, Peter A. Hastie and Julia Sassi

“understanding the relationships between the process (throwing pattern) and the product (throwing velocity) of the learned task can assist PE teachers to better design their instructional units.” Thus, throwing competence in this study was assessed using the third edition of the Test of Gross and Motor

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Jesualdo Cuevas-Aburto, Ivan Jukic, Jorge Miguel González-Hernández, Danica Janicijevic, Paola Barboza-González, Luis Javier Chirosa-Ríos and Amador García-Ramos

Muscular power has been related to a number of athletic performance tasks, such as sprinting, jumping, and throwing velocity. 1 , 2 In addition, the capacity to generate muscular power could differentiate between performance levels of athletes and between starters and nonstarters. 1 , 3 It is

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Gabriel Machado Claus, Paulo Eduardo Redkva, Gabriel Mota Pinheiro Brisola, Elvis Sousa Malta, Rodrigo de Araujo Bonetti de Poli, Willian Eiji Miyagi and Alessandro Moura Zagatto

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of beta–alanine supplementation on specific tests for water polo. Fifteen young water polo players (16 ± 2 years) underwent a 200-m swimming performance, repeated-sprint ability test (RSA) with free throw (shooting), and 30-s maximal tethered eggbeater kicks. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (placebo × beta-alanine) and supplemented with 6.4g∙day-1of beta-alanine or a placebo for six weeks. The mean and total RSA times, the magnitude based inference analysis showed a likely beneficial effect for beta-alanine supplementation (both). The ball velocity measured in the throwing performance after each sprint in the RSA presented a very like beneficial inference in the beta-alanine group for mean (96.4%) and percentage decrement of ball velocity (92.5%, likely beneficial). Furthermore, the percentage change for mean ball velocity was different between groups (beta-alanine=+2.5% and placebo=-3.5%; p = .034). In the 30-s maximal tethered eggbeater kicks the placebo group presented decreased peak force, mean force, and fatigue index, while the beta-alanine group maintained performance in mean force (44.1%, possibly beneficial), only presenting decreases in peak force. The 200-m swimming performance showed a possibly beneficial effect (68.7%). Six weeks of beta-alanine supplementation was effective for improving ball velocity shooting in the RSA, maintaining performance in the 30-s test, and providing possibly beneficial effects in the 200-m swimming performance.

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M.A. Urbin, David Stodden, Rhonda Boros and David Shannon

The purpose of this study was to examine variability in overarm throwing velocity and spatial output error at various percentages of maximum to test the prediction of an inverted-U function as predicted by impulse-variability theory and a speed-accuracy trade-off as predicted by Fitts’ Law Thirty subjects (16 skilled, 14 unskilled) were instructed to throw a tennis ball at seven percentages of their maximum velocity (40–100%) in random order (9 trials per condition) at a target 30 feet away. Throwing velocity was measured with a radar gun and interpreted as an index of overall systemic power output. Within-subject throwing velocity variability was examined using within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVAs (7 repeated conditions) with built-in polynomial contrasts. Spatial error was analyzed using mixed model regression. Results indicated a quadratic fit with variability in throwing velocity increasing from 40% up to 60%, where it peaked, and then decreasing at each subsequent interval to maximum (p < .001, η2 = .555). There was no linear relationship between speed and accuracy. Overall, these data support the notion of an inverted-U function in overarm throwing velocity variability as both skilled and unskilled subjects approach maximum effort. However, these data do not support the notion of a speed-accuracy trade-off. The consistent demonstration of an inverted-U function associated with systemic power output variability indicates an enhanced capability to regulate aspects of force production and relative timing between segments as individuals approach maximum effort, even in a complex ballistic skill.

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Alejandro Muñoz, Álvaro López-Samanes, Alberto Pérez-López, Millán Aguilar-Navarro, Berta Moreno-Heredero, Jesús Rivilla-García, Pablo González-Frutos, José Pino-Ortega, Esther Morencos and Juan Del Coso

, Guðmundsdóttir ML , Þorgeirsson S , Stefansson A . Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness, and throwing velocity in elite women’s handball teams . J Strength Cond Res . 2018 ; 32 ( 8 ): 2294 – 2301 . PubMed ID: 30044343 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002412 30044343 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002412

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Gertjan Ettema, Tommy Gløsen and Roland van den Tillaar

Purpose:

The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a pulley device) with the effect of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on overarm throwing velocity under various conditions.

Methods:

The training forms were matched for total training load, ie, impulse generated on the ball or pulley device. Both training groups (resistance training n = 7 and regular training n = 6) consisted of women team handball players, and trained 3 times per week for 8 weeks, according to an assigned training program alongside their normal handball training.

Results:

An increase in throwing velocity with normal balls after the training period was observed for both groups (P = .014), as well as throwing with heavier balls and throwing like actions in the pulley device. Although the regular training group seemed to improve more (6.1%) in throwing velocity with normal balls than the resistance training group (1.4%), this difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions:

These findings indicate that resistance training does not surpass standard throwing training in improvement of overarm throwing velocity.

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Cyril Genevois, Philippe Berthier, Vincent Guidou, Franck Muller, Boris Thiebault and Isabelle Rogowski

Context:

In women's handball, the large numbers of throws and passes make the shoulder region vulnerable to overuse injuries. Repetitive throwing motions generate imbalance between shoulder internal- and external-rotator muscles. It has not yet been established whether sling-based training can improve shoulder external-rotator muscle strength.

Objective:

This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-wk strengthening program in improving shoulder functional profile in elite female high school handball players.

Design:

Crossover study.

Setting:

National elite handball training center.

Participants:

25 elite female high school handball players.

Interventions:

The program, completed twice per week for 6 wk, included sling-based strengthening exercises using a suspension trainer for external rotation with scapular retraction and scapular retraction alone.

Main Outcomes:

Maximal shoulder external- and internal-rotation strength, shoulder external- and internal-rotation range of motion (ROM), and maximal throwing velocity were assessed preintervention and postintervention for dominant and nondominant sides.

Results:

After sling training, external- and internal-rotation strength increased significantly for both sides (P ≤ .001, and P = .004, respectively), with the result that there was no significant change in external- and internal-rotation strength ratios for either the dominant or the nondominant shoulder. No significant differences were observed for external-rotation ROM, while internal-rotation ROM decreased moderately, in particular in the dominant shoulder (P = .005). Maximal throwing velocity remained constant for the dominant arm, whereas a significant increase was found for the nondominant arm (P = .017).

Conclusions:

This 6-wk strengthening program was effective in improving shoulder external-rotator muscle strength but resulted in a decrease in the ROM in shoulder internal rotation, while throwing velocity remained stable. Adding a stretching program to this type of sling-based training program might help avoid potential detrimental effects on shoulder ROM.