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Shohei Shibata, Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka and Senshi Fukashiro

An overarm throw is a complex multijoint limb movement. Of arm segments, fingers are the only and final segments that contact the ball. Some previous studies have investigated finger kinematics ( Hore & Watts, 2011 ; Hore, Watts, & Tweed, 1996 ). Hore, Watts, and Tweed ( 1996 ) reported that

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Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason and Christopher J. Nightingale

that girls performed OCS (catching, kicking, and throwing) with less proficiency than did boys. Also noteworthy is a study of Australian children, in which Barnett et al. ( 2010 ) found that girls performed poorly relative to boys in throwing, catching, and kicking. More recently, Petranek and Barton

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Mark G.L. Sayers and Stephen Bishop

Upper body power is a key component for success in many sports. Athletes who can generate high power output during throwing, catching, attacking, or defending activities are often capable of superior performance. 1 A common method for assessing upper body power has been via a bench press throw. 1

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Jerraco L. Johnson, Mary E. Rudisill, Peter A. Hastie and Julia Sassi

classified as either locomotor skills or object control skills. Locomotor skills are actions that move the body through space (e.g., running and jumping), while object control skills require the use of hands and feet to manipulate objects (e.g., throwing and kicking) ( Haywood & Getchell, 2014 ). It is

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Sergio L. Molina and David F. Stodden

). Specifically, the speed-accuracy trade-off describes an inverse linear relationship between the speed of a movement and the accuracy of that movement. However, when examining the speed-accuracy trade-off in multijoint ballistic skills (e.g., throwing, kicking, and jumping), recent research does not support the

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Corbin A. Hedt, S. Brett Holland, Bradley S. Lambert, Joshua D. Harris and Patrick C. McCulloch

Baseball and other sports involving overhead throwing continue to be popular among all age groups and cultures. However, there are numerous injuries associated with the throwing athlete every year. 1 , 2 In major league baseball, over 50% of injuries occur in the upper-extremity, 2 and the

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Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

sport of softball itself is not well studied, the main movement performed is throwing, which is well defined in the baseball literature. 2 – 5 Throwing is a kinetic chain activity, requiring the body to act as coordinated, independent links connected in series. 2 To execute a throw, one must coordinate

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Ricardo Drews, Suzete Chiviacowsky and Gabriele Wulf

The present study investigated the effects of different ability conceptions on motor skills learning in 6-, 10-, and 14-year-old children. In each age group, different groups were given either inherent-ability or acquirable-skill instructions before they began practicing a throwing task. Participants were blindfolded and were asked to throw beanbags at a target placed on the floor at a distance of 3 m. All participants performed 40 practice trials and received feedback about the accuracy of their throws after each trial. One day after practice, retention and transfer (greater target distance) tests without instructions or feedback were conducted to assess learning effects. Older participants generally had higher accuracy scores than younger participants. Importantly, instructions emphasizing the learnability of the skill resulted in greater throwing accuracy on the retention test than did those implying an underlying inherent ability. On the transfer test, the same effect was seen for the 14-year-olds, but not for the younger age groups, suggesting that adolescents may be more vulnerable to the threat of their inherent ability being exposed. The present findings demonstrate the importance of ability conceptions for motor learning in children and adolescents. They also add to the mounting evidence of motivational influences on motor skill learning.

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

Within the sport of athletics (track and field), field events (jumps and throws) differ substantially from track events, both in training demands and in competition format. Combined events (CEs; the seven-event heptathlon and 10-event decathlon) encompass these demands, as well as those from

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M.A. Urbin

Goal-directed movement is possible because the cortical regions regulating movement have continuous access to visual information. Extensive research from the various domains of motor control (i.e., neurophysiology, neuropsychology, and psychophysics) has documented the extent to which the unremitting availability of visual information enables the sensorimotor system to facilitate online control of goal-directed limb movement. However, the control mechanism guiding appreciably more complex movements characterized by ballistic, whole-body coordination is not well understood. In the overarm throw, for example, joint rotations must be optimally timed between body segments to exploit the passive flow of kinetic energy and, in turn, maximize projectile speed while maintaining accuracy. The purpose of this review is to draw from the various research domains in motor control and speculate on the nature of the sensorimotor control mechanism facilitating overarm throwing performance.