opportunity for independent decision making) or thwart (e.g., a teammate laughing at a mistake made in practice) the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, making one’s own decisions; competence, the sense of being accomplished at a given task; and relatedness, the perception of being connected to
Krystn Orr, Katherine A. Tamminen, Shane N. Sweet, Jennifer R. Tomasone and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos
James A. Dimmock, Marylène Gagné, Lauren Proud, Timothy C. Howle, Amanda L. Rebar and Ben Jackson
Sustained attention has been devoted to studying the factors that support (or thwart) individuals’ enjoyment of, interest in, and value judgments regarding their exercise activities. We employed a resistance-inducing (i.e., inoculation theory) messaging technique with the aim of protecting these desirable perceptions in the face of environmental conditions designed to undermine one’s positive exercise experiences. Autonomously motivated exercisers (N = 146, M age = 20.57, SD = 4.02) performed a 25-min, group-based, instructor-led exercise circuit, in which the activities were deliberately monotonous, and during which the confederate instructor acted in a disinterested, unsupportive, and critical manner. Shortly before the session, participants received either a control message containing general information about the exercise class or an inoculation message containing a forewarning about potential challenges to participants’ enjoyment/interest/value perceptions during the class, as well as information about how participants might maintain positive perceptions in the face of these challenges. Despite there being no between-conditions differences in presession mood or general exercise motives, inoculated (relative to control) participants reported greater interest/enjoyment in the exercise session and higher perceptions of need support from the instructor. Perceptions of need support mediated the relationship between message condition and interest/enjoyment.
Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas and Guillaume Martinent
, 2015 ). This article aims to explore and understand individual differences in motivation profiles across time and the effects of satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs (BPNS and BPNT) on these profiles across the competitive season. Among the several motivational theories proposed
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-kwong Chung
The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs thwarting (frustration) in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, PNTSPE). Secondary school students (grades 7–9) from Hong Kong (N = 1258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation and initial content validity of the PNTSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the measure was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNTSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the findings from the three studies provided initial psychometric evidence for the PNTSPE and suggested that the PNTSPE could be used as a valid and reliable measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students’ psychological needs thwarting in physical education.
Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis, Richard M. Ryan and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
Research in self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) has shown that satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs in sport contexts is associated with enhanced engagement, performance, and well-being. This article outlines the initial development of a multidimensional measure designed to assess psychological need thwarting, an under-studied area of conceptual and practical importance. Study 1 generated a pool of items designed to tap the negative experiential state that occurs when athletes perceive their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to be actively undermined. Study 2 tested the factorial structure of the questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis. The supported model comprised 3 factors, which represented the hypothesized interrelated dimensions of need thwarting. The model was refined and cross-validated using an independent sample in Study 3. Overall, the psychological need thwarting scale (PNTS) demonstrated good content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender, sport type, competitive level, and competitive experience. The conceptualization of psychological need thwarting is discussed, and suggestions are made regarding the use of the PNTS in research pertaining to the darker side of sport participation.
Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier
motivation is considered optimal as it promotes positive outcomes such as better learning, interest, effort, persistence, and health ( Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ). Alternatively, if the context thwarts individuals by actively depriving their three psychological needs, they are more likely to experience need
Johannes Raabe, Andrew D. Bass, Lauren K. McHenry and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek
autonomy, competence, and relatedness throughout their subsequent transition to a new career? c. What factors satisfied and/or thwarted former players’ perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness throughout their transition to a new career? Method Participants The current study’s sample was
Daniel Wixey, Knud Ryom and Kieran Kingston
players became almost unattainable. Psychological need thwarting is a term to describe actions or behaviours that contribute to or directly reduce the satisfaction of an individual’s basic needs ( Ntoumanis, 2012 ). Basic psychological needs theory, a subtheory of self-determination theory, proposes
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung
contexts can either support or thwart an individual’s perception of the three basic psychological needs; this, in turn, leads to adaptive or maladaptive psychological functioning, respectively ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). Autonomy refers to the need for self-governance and self-endorsement of one’s own behavior
Guillaume Martinent, Emma Guillet-Descas and Sophie Moiret
Using self-determination theory as the framework, we examined the temporal ordering between satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs and motivation. We accomplished this goal by using a two-wave 7-month partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM) among a sample of 94 adolescent athletes (M age = 15.96) in an intensive training setting. The PLS-PM results showed significant paths leading: (a) from T1 satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence to T2 identified regulation, (b) from T1 external regulation to T2 thwarting and satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence, and (c) from T1 amotivation to T2 satisfaction of basic psychological need for relatedness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between basic psychological need and motivation varied depending on the type of basic need and motivation assessed. Basic psychological need for competence predicted identified regulation over time whereas amotivation and external regulation predicted basic psychological need for relatedness or competence over time.