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Jorge Mota, Pedro Silva, Luísa Aires, Maria Paula Santos, José Oliveira and José C. Ribeiro


The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in physical activity (PA) during specific periods of the day among active and less-active girls.


The sample comprised 54 girls age 10 to 15 years. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Girls were grouped as less active, active, and highly active.


Total minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly higher in more-active girls than in their less-active peers (113 and 72 min/d, respectively). The most-active groups were significantly more engaged in MVPA during the outside-of-school period than were less-active girls. Highly active girls spent a significantly higher amount of their MVPA time outside of school than did the less-active group, which spent a significantly higher proportion of MVPA time during late afternoon.


Outside-of-school PA is a key point for MVPA engagement. Particularly for the less-active girls, however, schools might provide additional PA.

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Sarahjane Belton, Gavin Breslin, Stephen Shannon, Wesley O’Brien, Ben Fitzpatrick, Tandy Haughey, Fiona Chambers, Danielle Powell, Darryl McCullagh and Deirdre Brennan

children from lower socioeconomic groups should be targeted. The need for specific interventions to target PA during specific time periods for Irish children is highlighted in the recommendations of Woods et al. 6 Before truly targeted intervention strategies can be developed, however, further information

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Ian David Boardley, Doris Matosic and Mark William Bruner

positive links with later MD. Next, MD predicted longitudinal changes in ABO from the start to the middle of the season, and from the middle to the end of the season, with weak positive effects over both time periods. In contrast, ABO did not meaningfully predict changes in MD across either of the time

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

activity than males when responding to head perturbations, in particular during preperturbation time periods. Methods Participants Sixteen competitive ice hockey players free of head and neck injuries in the past 12 months participated (Table  1 ). All female participants were current varsity players, and

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Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas and Christos Anagnostopoulos

; Kassing & Sanderson, 2010 ; Parganas et al., 2015 ; Pegoraro, 2010 ). The official Facebook and Twitter pages of the selected clubs were examined daily for two distinct time periods during each of the football seasons 2013–14, 2014–15, and 2015–16. The first period was prior to the start of each season

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Dean Ritchie, Justin Keogh, Steven Stern, Peter Reaburn, Fergus O’Connor and Jonathan D. Bartlett

recovery time periods on subsequent same day RT performance in professional AF players. In meeting the study aims, we adopted an experimental approach, while subsequently employing an “explorative” method, often used in retrospective study designs to answer the research question. This was necessary in

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David L. Porretta, Paul R. Surburg and Paul Jansma

Graduates from four adapted physical education doctoral programs (1980-1999) within the United States were surveyed to determine their perceptions on the extent to which they attained published competencies in the areas of research and adapted physical education. A survey was mailed to 109 doctoral program graduates. A total of 99 surveys (91%) were usable for data analysis. Competency data were analyzed separately across two 10-year time periods (1980-1989; 1990-1999). Respondents’ perceptions improved significantly in cumulative research competency scores from the first to the second time period. Responses for adapted physical education competencies were similar across both time periods. Follow-up analyses on responses for each of the separate 18 research and 20 adapted physical education competency statements resulted in significant improvement from 1980-1989 to 1990-1999 for eight research competencies and one adapted physical education competency. Results have implications for the future of adapted physical education doctoral training in the United States and beyond.

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Jill Whitall, Nadja Schott, Leah E. Robinson, Farid Bardid and Jane E. Clark

In 1989, Clark and Whitall asked the question, “What is motor development?” They were referring to the study of motor development as an academic research enterprise and answered their question primarily by describing four relatively distinct time periods characterized by changes in focus, theories or concepts, and methodology. Their last period was named the process-oriented period (1970–1989). In hindsight, it seems clear that their last period could be divided into two separate historical time periods: the information-processing period (1970–1982) and the dynamical systems period (1982–2000). In the present paper, we briefly revisit the first three periods defined by Clark and Whitall, and expand and elaborate on the two periods from 1970 to the turn of the century. Each period is delineated by key papers and the major changes in focus, theories or concepts, and methodology. Major findings about motor development are also described from some papers as a means of showing the progression of knowledge.

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David L. Porretta, Francis M. Kozub and Fabio L. Lisboa

Articles related to adapted physical activity appearing in professional journals (1984-1998) were analyzed. Of the 111 articles reviewed, 30 (27%), 39 (35%), and 42 (38%) were published during the 1984-1988, 1989-1993, and 1994-1998 time periods, respectively. Two thirds of the studies concerned conditions/demographics/practices rather than attitudes. Only 34 (31%) surveys were mailed as opposed to other forms of delivery (e.g., face to face interviews, telephone, etc.). While validity and reliability reporting increased over the three time periods, in total, only 59 (53%) reported validity and 62 (56%) reported reliability. A sample frame was clearly identified in only 43 (39%) studies. Only 7 (6%) articles addressed nonresponse bias, a critical element in survey research design. Future investigators need to report validity and reliability, clearly define sample frames, and account for nonresponse bias.

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Diane E. Butterworth, David C. Nieman, Janice V. Butler and Jodi L. Herring

A group of marathon runners (290 males, 54 females, mean age 39.7 ± 0.7 years) who participated in the Los Angeles Marathon recorded their food and fluid intake throughout a 3-day period, with the time of day denoted for each entry. Investigators coded each subject's food intake according to six time periods: 5:OO-8:59 a.m., 9:00-1059 a.m., 11:OO a.m.-1:59 p.m., 2:00-359 p.m., 4:0&7:59 p.m., and 8:00 p.m.459 a.m. The average intake of the runners consisted of 314 ± 6 g (52.3%) carbohydrates, 83.2 + 2.0 g (30.7%) fat, and 99.7 ± 2.3 g (16.5%) protein. Time periods for breakfast (13.7%), lunch (23.8%), and supper (34.0%) accounted for 71.5% of total caloric intake, with snack time periods contributing 28.5%. Breakfast calories were 68.9 ± 0.9% carbohydrate and 20.4 + 0.7% fat in contrast to supper calories, which were 47.7 ± 0.8% and 31.8 ± 0.6%, respectively. A sizable proportion of the daily caloric intake of recreational marathon runners is contributed by snacks and food intake after 4:00 p.m.