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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

-rich fruit supplementation on endurance performance, none has used blueberries. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to investigate the effects of blueberry supplementation on time-trial (TT) running performance, physiological responses to running, and short-term recovery. Markers of

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

moderate intensity in combination with a rest period of more than 3 min after protocol completion and before the time trial. Although feedback regarding the internal bodily state is crucial in exercise regulation, the importance of whatever is happening in the external world around the exerciser has been

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Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels, and Jos J. de Koning

model, 8 it has been shown that a decrease in GE of 0.9% results in a 25.6-second slower finish time during a 20,000-m cycling time trial. 9 Multiple studies found a decreased GE after high-intensity exercise. 10 – 13 Noordhof et al 11 showed that GE was lower after time-trial exercise than before

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Amin Daneshfar, Carl J. Petersen, Majid S. Koozehchian, and Daniel E. Gahreman

rate of dropped power output in sets 3 and 4 was significantly reduced after CAF versus placebo. Similarly, Ryan et al. ( 2013 ) observed enhanced cycling time trial (TT) after delivering 300 mg of caffeine via chewing gum 5 min before exercise. Interestingly, the same dosage 60 and 120 min preexercise

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón, and Pedro J. Benito

France, Giro d’Italia, and Vuelta a España), focusing on both competition formats: mass-start stages 4 and individual and team time trials (TTs). 5 Uphill TTs are important stages for general classification, and their intensity is related to not only ascent difficulty but also their position within the

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Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson, and Brook Galna

-second sprints, 9 4-minute time trials, 10 and longer duration 40-km time trials despite a ∼6% reduction in performance time outdoors. 11 Relatively little is known about variation in power output in response to more immediate external demands of pacing during outdoor cycling such as short strategic

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Philippe Richard, Lymperis P. Koziris, Mathieu Charbonneau, Catherine Naulleau, Jonathan Tremblay, and François Billaut

this study was to examine the impact of nitrate supplementation on repeated, time-trial performance in international-level short-track speed skaters. We hypothesized that chronic nitrate supplementation improves on-ice performance during an initial time trial and facilitates recovery of performance

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Steve H. Faulkner, Iris Broekhuijzen, Margherita Raccuglia, Maarten Hupperets, Simon G. Hodder, and George Havenith

shown in more ecologically valid measures of performance, such as cycling time trials. 1 It is clear that there is a strong link between increases in thermoregulatory strain, due to elevations in both metabolic and ambient heat, and impaired endurance performance. 5 To compete at the highest level

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Philippe Richard and François Billaut

position. 2 A comparison of oxygenation patterns in short- versus long-track speed skating demonstrates that the former discipline leads to more severe muscle deoxygenation. 3 Moreover, higher perceived fatigue and slower recovery are reported 2 and 4 hours after short- versus long-track time trials, 3

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore, and Gregory Whyte

ergogenic action of 2- and 4-mg inhaled terbutaline on exercise performance during a 3-km running time trial and to measure urinary thresholds of terbutaline postexercise performance. Methods Following ethical approval from the Liverpool John Moores University Research Ethics Committee (Ethics No. P11SPS044