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Four Days of Blueberry Powder Supplementation Lowers the Blood Lactate Response to Running But Has No Effect on Time-Trial Performance

Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

-rich fruit supplementation on endurance performance, none has used blueberries. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were to investigate the effects of blueberry supplementation on time-trial (TT) running performance, physiological responses to running, and short-term recovery. Markers of

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Preexercise Cycling Protocol Alters Pacing Behavior in Competitive Time Trials

Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

moderate intensity in combination with a rest period of more than 3 min after protocol completion and before the time trial. Although feedback regarding the internal bodily state is crucial in exercise regulation, the importance of whatever is happening in the external world around the exerciser has been

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Recovery of Cycling Gross Efficiency After Time-Trial Exercise

Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels, and Jos J. de Koning

model, 8 it has been shown that a decrease in GE of 0.9% results in a 25.6-second slower finish time during a 20,000-m cycling time trial. 9 Multiple studies found a decreased GE after high-intensity exercise. 10 – 13 Noordhof et al 11 showed that GE was lower after time-trial exercise than before

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Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Bicycle Motocross Time-Trial Performance

Amin Daneshfar, Carl J. Petersen, Majid S. Koozehchian, and Daniel E. Gahreman

rate of dropped power output in sets 3 and 4 was significantly reduced after CAF versus placebo. Similarly, Ryan et al. ( 2013 ) observed enhanced cycling time trial (TT) after delivering 300 mg of caffeine via chewing gum 5 min before exercise. Interestingly, the same dosage 60 and 120 min preexercise

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Physiological Profile of an Uphill Time Trial in Elite Cyclists

Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón, and Pedro J. Benito

France, Giro d’Italia, and Vuelta a España), focusing on both competition formats: mass-start stages 4 and individual and team time trials (TTs). 5 Uphill TTs are important stages for general classification, and their intensity is related to not only ascent difficulty but also their position within the

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An Analysis of Variability in Power Output During Indoor and Outdoor Cycling Time Trials

Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson, and Brook Galna

-second sprints, 9 4-minute time trials, 10 and longer duration 40-km time trials despite a ∼6% reduction in performance time outdoors. 11 Relatively little is known about variation in power output in response to more immediate external demands of pacing during outdoor cycling such as short strategic

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Time-Trial Performance in World-Class Speed Skaters After Chronic Nitrate Ingestion

Philippe Richard, Lymperis P. Koziris, Mathieu Charbonneau, Catherine Naulleau, Jonathan Tremblay, and François Billaut

this study was to examine the impact of nitrate supplementation on repeated, time-trial performance in international-level short-track speed skaters. We hypothesized that chronic nitrate supplementation improves on-ice performance during an initial time trial and facilitates recovery of performance

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Phosphate Loading Does not Improve 30-km Cycling Time-Trial Performance in Trained Cyclists

Harry Pope, Max Davis, M. Begona Delgado-Charro, Oliver J. Peacock, Javier Gonzalez, and James A. Betts

function, and blood hemoglobin content, which translated to improvements in both 5-mile run time and 40-km cycling time trials ( Kreider et al., 1990 , 1992 ). The fact that such effects have not been consistently associated with changes in RBC 2,3-DPG may implicate other potential mechanisms of action

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The Threshold Ambient Temperature for the Use of Precooling to Improve Cycling Time-Trial Performance

Steve H. Faulkner, Iris Broekhuijzen, Margherita Raccuglia, Maarten Hupperets, Simon G. Hodder, and George Havenith

shown in more ecologically valid measures of performance, such as cycling time trials. 1 It is clear that there is a strong link between increases in thermoregulatory strain, due to elevations in both metabolic and ambient heat, and impaired endurance performance. 5 To compete at the highest level

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Time-Trial Performance in Elite Speed Skaters After Remote Ischemic Preconditioning

Philippe Richard and François Billaut

position. 2 A comparison of oxygenation patterns in short- versus long-track speed skating demonstrates that the former discipline leads to more severe muscle deoxygenation. 3 Moreover, higher perceived fatigue and slower recovery are reported 2 and 4 hours after short- versus long-track time trials, 3