The three-compartment (3-C) model of physique assessment (fat mass, fat-free mass, water) incorporates total body water (TBW) whereas the two-compartment model (2-C) assumes a TBW of 73.72%. Deuterium dilution (D2O) is the reference method for measuring TBW but is expensive and time consuming. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS SFB7) estimates TBW instantaneously and claims high precision. Our aim was to compare SFB7 with D2O for estimating TBW in resistance trained males (BMI >25kg/m2). We included TBWBIS estimates in a 3-C model and contrasted this and the 2-C model against the reference 3-C model using TBWD2O. TBW of 29 males (32.4 ± 8.5 years; 183.4 ± 7.2 cm; 92.5 ± 9.9 kg; 27.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) was measured using SFB7 and D2O. Body density was measured by BODPOD, with body composition calculated using the Siri equation. TBWBIS values were consistent with TBWD2O (SEE = 2.65L; TE = 2.6L) as were %BF values from the 3-C model (BODPOD + TBWBIS) with the 3-C reference model (SEE = 2.20%; TE = 2.20%). For subjects with TBW more than 1% from the assumed 73.72% (n = 16), %BF from the 2-C model differed significantly from the reference 3-C model (Slope 0.6888; Intercept 5.093). The BIS SFB7 measured TBW accurately compared with D2O. The 2C model with an assumed TBW of 73.72% introduces error in the estimation of body composition. We recommend TBW should be measured, either via the traditional D2O method or when resources are limited, with BIS, so that body composition estimates are enhanced. The BIS can be accurately used in 3C equations to better predict TBW and BF% in resistance trained males compared with a 2C model.
Ava Kerr, Gary Slater, Nuala Byrne and Janet Chaseling
Mollie G. DeLozier, Bernard Gutin, Jack Wang, Charles E. Basch, Isobel Contento, Steven Shea, Matilde Irigoyen Patricia Zybert, Jill Rips and Richard Pierson
Anthropometric and bioimpedance regression equations were developed for young children using total body water (TBW) as the criterion. Ninety-six boys and girls, 4-8 years of age, served as subjects. Measures included height, weight, five skinfold thicknesses, three circumferences, total body bioimpedance, and separate bioimpedance measures of the arm, trunk, and leg. Height and weight alone accounted for .70 of the variance in TBW. Adding other measures did not significantly increase the R 2. Standard errors of estimate for TBW were similar to those reported for older individuals (1.39-1.44 1) but may be too large relative to the small size of the subjects for the equations to be acceptable.
Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha and Analiza M. Silva
standardized for the subject’s stature to classify differences in total body water (TBW; negatively related to vector length) and cell mass (positively related to PA). Even if the accuracy of classic BIVA in assessing the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hydration status (ie, detection of hyper- or hypo
John R. Stofan, Kris L. Osterberg, Craig A. Horswill, Magie Lacambra, E. Randy Eichner, Scott A. Anderson and Robert Murray
The authors measured 24-h fluid-turnover (FTO) rate during 6 d of preseason training in U.S. college football players. Players, training (T, n = 9, full gear and contact drills) and reference (R, n = 4, conditioning without gear or contact), ingested a deuterium oxide (D2O) dose and provided urine samples every 24 h for analysis of D2O. During one ~2.3–h practice (wet-bulb globe temperature 24.6 °C), body-mass change, urine production, and voluntary fluid intake were measured to calculate gross sweat loss (GSL). Average FTO was 10.3 ± 2.2 L/d for T and 7.0 ± 1.0 L/d for R. GSL was 3.4 ± 1.5 L for T and 1.7 ± 1.3 for R (P > 0.05). By Day 6, body mass decreased significantly in T (–2.4 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.05) but not in R (0.38 ± 0.95 kg). With preseason training under moderate environmental stress, football players had high FTO and sweat rates, which might have contributed to a loss of body mass during preseason football training.
Lawrence E. Armstrong
Recreational enthusiasts and athletes often are advised to abstain from consuming caffeinated beverages (CB). The dual purposes of this review are to (a) critique controlled investigations regarding the effects of caffeine on dehydration and exercise performance, and (b) ascertain whether abstaining from CB is scientifically and physiologically justifiable. The literature indicates that caffeine consumption stimulates a mild diuresis similar to water, but there is no evidence of a fluid-electrolyte imbalance that is detrimental to exercise performance or health. Investigations comparing caffeine (100-680 mg) to water or placebo seldom found a statistical difference in urine volume. In the 10 studies reviewed, consumption of a CB resulted in 0-84% retention of the initial volume ingested, whereas consumption of water resulted in 0-81% retention. Further, tolerance to caffeine reduces the likelihood that a detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalance will occur. The scientific literature suggests that athletes and recreational enthusiasts will not incur detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalances if they consume CB in moderation and eat a typical U.S. diet. Sedentary members of the general public should be at less risk than athletes because their fluid losses via sweating are smaller.
Francesco Campa and Stefania Toselli
median line of the body and the upper limbs, distant 30° from the trunk. After cleansing the skin with alcohol, the operator placed 2 electrodes (Biatrodes Akern, Florence, Italy) on the back of the participant’s right hand and 2 electrodes on the neck of the right foot. 2 , 7 Total body water (TBW
Lawrence E. Armstrong, Amy C. Pumerantz, Kelly A. Fiala, Melissa W. Roti, Stavros A. Kavouras, Douglas J. Casa and Carl M. Maresh
It is difficult to describe hydration status and hydration extremes because fluid intakes and excretion patterns of free-living individuals are poorly documented and regulation of human water balance is complex and dynamic. This investigation provided reference values for euhydration (i.e., body mass, daily fluid intake, serum osmolality; M ± SD); it also compared urinary indices in initial morning samples and 24-hr collections. Five observations of 59 healthy, active men (age 22 ± 3 yr, body mass 75.1 ± 7.9 kg) occurred during a 12-d period. Participants maintained detailed records of daily food and fluid intake and exercise. Results indicated that the mean total fluid intake in beverages, pure water, and solid foods was >2.1 L/24 hr (range 1.382–3.261, 95% confidence interval 0.970–3.778 L/24 hr); mean urine volume was >1.3 L/24 hr (0.875–2.250 and 0.675–3.000 L/24 hr); mean urine specific gravity was >1.018 (1.011–1.027 and 1.009–1.030); and mean urine color was ≥4 (4–6 and 2–7). However, these men rarely (0–2% of measurements) achieved a urine specific gravity below 1.010 or color of 1. The first morning urine sample was more concentrated than the 24-h urine collection, likely because fluids were not consumed overnight. Furthermore, urine specific gravity and osmolality were strongly correlated (r2 = .81–.91, p < .001) in both morning and 24-hr collections. These findings provide euhydration reference values and hydration extremes for 7 commonly used indices in free-living, healthy, active men who were not exercising in a hot environment or training strenuously.
Alex S. Ribeiro, Matheus A. Nascimento, Brad J. Schoenfeld, João Pedro Nunes, Andreo F. Aguiar, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha, Steven J. Fleck and Edilson S. Cyrino
the square of height (m). Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Measurements Spectral bioelectrical impedance equipment (Xitron Hydra, model 4200; Xitron Technologies, San Diego, CA) was used to estimate total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water, resistance ( R
Richard B. Kreider, Robert Klesges, Karen Harmon, Pamela Grindstaff, Leigh Ramsey, Daryll Bullen, Larry Wood, Yuhua Li and Anthony Almada
This study examined the effects of ingesting nutritional supplements designed to promote lean tissue accretion on body composition alterations during resistance training. Twenty-eight resistance-trained males blindly supplemented their diets with maltodextrin (M), Gainers Fuel® 1000 (GF), or Phosphagain™ (P). No significant differences were observed in absolute or relative total body water among groups. Energy intake and body weight significantly increased in all groups combined throughout the study with no group or interaction differences observed. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-determined body mass significantly increased in each group throughout the study with significantly greater gains observed in the GF and P groups. Lean tissue mass (excluding bone) gain was significantly greater in the P group, while fat mass and percent body fat were significantly increased in the GF group. Results indicate that total body weight significantly increased in each group and that P supplementation resulted in significantly greater gains in lean tissue mass during resistance training.
Jennifer Gornall and Rudolph G. Villani
The primary aim was to investigate whether the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fat free mass (FFM) associated with a short-term very low kilojoule diet (VLKD) is altered by concurrent resistance exercise. Twenty overweight, premenopausal women were pair matched on body surface area and randomly assigned to either diet only (3,400 kJ/day) or diet combined with resistance training. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry; total body mass (TBM), FFM, and fat mass (FM) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; total body water (TBW) by bioelectrical impedance; and strength by a weight-lifting test. Both groups had significantly lower TBM, FFM, FM, TBW, absolute RMR, and RMR, with FFM as the covariate, in the posttests than the pretests with no significant differences between groups. It was concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training did not prevent or reduce the decline in FFM and RMR observed with a VLKD.